Worms, flies and four-legged friends

The applicability of biological models to the understanding of intestinal inflammatory diseases

Joyce Lin, David Hackam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Diseases of intestinal inflammation, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and necrotizing enterocolitis, cause substantial acute and chronic disability in a large proportion of the population. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, which are collectively referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), lead to recurrent episodes of intestinal dysfunction and systemic illness, whereas necrotizing enterocolitis is characterized by the development of dramatic and all too often fatal intestinal necrosis in infants. To determine the molecular underpinnings of these disorders, investigators have explored a variety of animal models that vary widely in their complexity. These experimental systems include the invertebrate nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the more complex invertebrate Drosophila melanogaster, and vertebrate systems including mice, rats and other mammals. This review explores the experimental models that are used to mimic and evaluate the pathogenic mechanisms leading to these diseases of intestinal inflammation. We then highlight, as an example, how the use of different experimental models that focus on the role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in the gut has revealed important distinctions between the pathogenesis of IBD and necrotizing enterocolitis. Specifically, TLR4-mediated signaling plays a protective role in the development of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, whereas this signaling pathway plays a causative role in the development of necrotizing enterocolitis in the newborn small intestine by adversely affecting intestinal injury and repair mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)447-456
Number of pages10
JournalDMM Disease Models and Mechanisms
Volume4
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2011
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Intestinal Diseases
Biological Models
Necrotizing Enterocolitis
Diptera
Ulcerative Colitis
Crohn Disease
Toll-Like Receptor 4
Invertebrates
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Theoretical Models
Inflammation
Caenorhabditis elegans
Drosophila melanogaster
Small Intestine
Vertebrates
Mammals
Necrosis
Animal Models
Research Personnel
Newborn Infant

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Immunology and Microbiology (miscellaneous)
  • Neuroscience (miscellaneous)

Cite this

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