Women's responses to battering over time an analysis of change

Jacquelyn C. Campbell, Karen L. Soeken

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

140 Scopus citations


A community volunteer sample of 98 battered women was interviewed using a combination of established instruments and in-depth questions over three points in time during a period of 31/2 years. An ANOVA change analysis approach was used, dividing the women into three approximately equal groups according to abuse status. Groups 1 and 2, women who indicated a change from abuse to nonabuse status, reported significantly better health as compared to women reporting abuse at all three times. In contrast, depression decreasedfor all 3 groups from Time 1 to Time 2, with a significant increase at Time 3 with no effect of abuse status. Self-esteem in non-African American women had a similar trajectory. However, for African American women, the means in both self-esteem and self-care agency increased across all three times, regardless of abuse. Depression trajectories also differed between African American and non-African American women.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)21-40
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Interpersonal Violence
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1999
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Applied Psychology


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