Whole grain intake and its cross-sectional association with obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, diabetes and subclinical CVD: The MESA Study

Pamela L. Lutsey, David R. Jacobs, Sujata Kori, Elizabeth Mayer-Davis, Steven Shea, Lyn M. Steffen, Moyses Szklo, Russell Tracy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

We examined the relationship between whole grain intake and obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, diabetes and subclinical CVD using baseline data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Whole grain intake was measured by a 127-item FFQ in 5496 men and women free of CHD and previously known diabetes. Mean whole grain intake was 0.5 (sd 0.5) servings per d; biochemical measures reflect fasting levels. After adjustment for demographic and health behaviour variables, mean differences for the highest quintile of whole grain intake minus the lowest quintile of intake were 0.6 kg/m2 for BMI, 0.36 mg/l for C-reactive protein, 0.82 μmol/l for homocysteine, 0.15 mU/l*mmol/l for homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), 0.48mU/l for serum insulin, 2.0 mg/dl for glucose and 5.7% for prevalence of newly diagnosed impaired fasting glucose (glucose ≥100mg/dl or diabetes medication). These differences represent 11-13% of a standard deviation of BMI, HOMA, glucose and impaired fasting glucose, but 23%, 52% and 80% of a standard deviation of homocysteine, C-reactive protein and insulin, respectively. An inverse association between whole grains and urine albumin excretion was suggested but retained statistical significance after adjustment only in Chinese and Hispanic participants. No associations were observed between whole grain intake and two subclinical disease measures: carotid intima-media thickness and coronary artery calcification. Concordant with previous research, whole grain intake was inversely associated with obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation and elevated fasting glucose or newly diagnosed diabetes. Counter to hypothesis, however, whole grain intake was unrelated to subclinical CVD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)397-405
Number of pages9
JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
Volume98
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2007

Keywords

  • CVD disease risk
  • Microalbuminuria
  • Subclinical CVD
  • Whole grains

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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