Where does HIV hide? A focus on the central nervous system

Melissa Churchill, Avindra Nath

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the literature on infection and evolution of HIV within the brain in the context for understanding the nature of the brain reservoir and its consequences. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV-1 in the brain can evolve in separate compartments within macrophage/microglia and astrocytes. The virus adapts to the brain environment to infect these cells and brain-specific mutations can be found in nearly all genes of the virus. The virus evolves to become more neurovirulent. SUMMARY: The brain is an ideal reservoir for the HIV. The brain is a relatively immune privileged site and the blood-brain barrier prevents easy access to antiretroviral drugs. Further, the virus infects resident macrophages and astrocytes which are long-lived cells and causes minimal cytopathology in these cells. Hence as we move towards developing strategies for eradication of the virus from the peripheral reservoirs, it is critical that we pay close attention to the virus in the brain and develop strategies for maintaining it in a latent state failure of which could result in dire consequences.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)165-169
Number of pages5
JournalCurrent Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Volume8
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2013
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Central Nervous System
HIV
Brain
Viruses
Astrocytes
Macrophages
Microglia
Blood-Brain Barrier
HIV Infections
HIV-1
Mutation
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Genes

Keywords

  • astrocytes
  • brain
  • dementia
  • HIV
  • microglia
  • mutations
  • reservoirs
  • viral evolution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Oncology(nursing)
  • Immunology
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology
  • Oncology

Cite this

Where does HIV hide? A focus on the central nervous system. / Churchill, Melissa; Nath, Avindra.

In: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS, Vol. 8, No. 3, 05.2013, p. 165-169.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Churchill, Melissa ; Nath, Avindra. / Where does HIV hide? A focus on the central nervous system. In: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS. 2013 ; Vol. 8, No. 3. pp. 165-169.
@article{a42b46c7de3a4f2cb3a5552ab830b71d,
title = "Where does HIV hide? A focus on the central nervous system",
abstract = "PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the literature on infection and evolution of HIV within the brain in the context for understanding the nature of the brain reservoir and its consequences. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV-1 in the brain can evolve in separate compartments within macrophage/microglia and astrocytes. The virus adapts to the brain environment to infect these cells and brain-specific mutations can be found in nearly all genes of the virus. The virus evolves to become more neurovirulent. SUMMARY: The brain is an ideal reservoir for the HIV. The brain is a relatively immune privileged site and the blood-brain barrier prevents easy access to antiretroviral drugs. Further, the virus infects resident macrophages and astrocytes which are long-lived cells and causes minimal cytopathology in these cells. Hence as we move towards developing strategies for eradication of the virus from the peripheral reservoirs, it is critical that we pay close attention to the virus in the brain and develop strategies for maintaining it in a latent state failure of which could result in dire consequences.",
keywords = "astrocytes, brain, dementia, HIV, microglia, mutations, reservoirs, viral evolution",
author = "Melissa Churchill and Avindra Nath",
year = "2013",
month = "5",
doi = "10.1097/COH.0b013e32835fc601",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "8",
pages = "165--169",
journal = "Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS",
issn = "1746-630X",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Where does HIV hide? A focus on the central nervous system

AU - Churchill, Melissa

AU - Nath, Avindra

PY - 2013/5

Y1 - 2013/5

N2 - PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the literature on infection and evolution of HIV within the brain in the context for understanding the nature of the brain reservoir and its consequences. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV-1 in the brain can evolve in separate compartments within macrophage/microglia and astrocytes. The virus adapts to the brain environment to infect these cells and brain-specific mutations can be found in nearly all genes of the virus. The virus evolves to become more neurovirulent. SUMMARY: The brain is an ideal reservoir for the HIV. The brain is a relatively immune privileged site and the blood-brain barrier prevents easy access to antiretroviral drugs. Further, the virus infects resident macrophages and astrocytes which are long-lived cells and causes minimal cytopathology in these cells. Hence as we move towards developing strategies for eradication of the virus from the peripheral reservoirs, it is critical that we pay close attention to the virus in the brain and develop strategies for maintaining it in a latent state failure of which could result in dire consequences.

AB - PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the literature on infection and evolution of HIV within the brain in the context for understanding the nature of the brain reservoir and its consequences. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV-1 in the brain can evolve in separate compartments within macrophage/microglia and astrocytes. The virus adapts to the brain environment to infect these cells and brain-specific mutations can be found in nearly all genes of the virus. The virus evolves to become more neurovirulent. SUMMARY: The brain is an ideal reservoir for the HIV. The brain is a relatively immune privileged site and the blood-brain barrier prevents easy access to antiretroviral drugs. Further, the virus infects resident macrophages and astrocytes which are long-lived cells and causes minimal cytopathology in these cells. Hence as we move towards developing strategies for eradication of the virus from the peripheral reservoirs, it is critical that we pay close attention to the virus in the brain and develop strategies for maintaining it in a latent state failure of which could result in dire consequences.

KW - astrocytes

KW - brain

KW - dementia

KW - HIV

KW - microglia

KW - mutations

KW - reservoirs

KW - viral evolution

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84876410605&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84876410605&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1097/COH.0b013e32835fc601

DO - 10.1097/COH.0b013e32835fc601

M3 - Article

C2 - 23429501

AN - SCOPUS:84876410605

VL - 8

SP - 165

EP - 169

JO - Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS

JF - Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS

SN - 1746-630X

IS - 3

ER -