What are the psychometric properties of a menstrual hygiene management scale: A community-based cross-sectional study

Astha Ramaiya, Suruchi Sood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: The last decade has highlighted how menstrual hygiene management (MHM) is a public health issue because of its link to health, education, social justice and human rights. However, measurement of MHM has not been validated across different studies. The objective of this manuscript was to test the psychometric properties of a MHM scale. Methods: An embedded mixed-method design was utilized. The girls (age 12-19) were from three districts of Uttar Pradesh (Mirzapur, Jaunpur and Sonebhadra), India. A total of 2212 girls participated in the structured questionnaire. Trained interviewers collected the data on tablets using computer assisted personal interviewing. A total of 36 FGDs were conducted among 309 girls between. Trained moderators collected the data. Factor analysis and thematic analysis was conducted to analyze and triangulate the data. Results: More than 90% of the girls were from a marginalized caste. Overall, 28% of the girls practiced all six MHM behaviors adequately. The factor analysis found five separate constructs corresponding to menstrual health and hygiene management (MHHM) with a variation of 84% and eigenvalue of 1.7. Preparation of clean absorbent, storage of clean absorbent, frequency of changing and disposal loaded separately, corresponding to menstrual health. Privacy to change and hygiene loaded together (eigenvalue 0.91 each), corresponding to hygiene management. An underlying theme from the FGD was menstruation as a taboo and lack of privacy for changing the absorbent. Conclusion: MHM is multi-dimensional construct comprising of behaviors which were time-bound by menstruation (menstrual health) and behaviors not time-bound by menstruation (hygiene management). Based on these results, the author recommends that MHHM is used as an acronym in the future and proposes a revised definition for MHHM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number525
JournalBMC public health
Issue number1
StatePublished - Apr 19 2020


  • Health
  • Hygiene
  • Menstrual health and hygiene management
  • Menstrual hygiene management
  • Psychometric properties

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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