Weight of evidence for an association between adverse reproductive and developmental effects and exposure to disinfection by-products: A critical review

Carol Gevecker Graves, Genevieve Matanoski, Robert G. Tardiff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Disinfection by-products (DBP) are a side effect of water chlorination. Some toxicological studies suggest an association between DBP exposure and adverse reproductive and developmental effects. This investigation considered all toxicological and epidemiological evidence for the various effects, outcome by outcome. The weight of evidence demonstrated that no association with DBP exposure exists for over a dozen outcomes including low and very low birth weight, preterm delivery, some specific congenital anomalies, and neonatal death. The analysis found inconsistent or very weak results for all congenital anomalies/birth defects, all central nervous system anomalies, neural tube defects, spontaneous abortion, and stillbirth. The weight of evidence suggested a positive association with DBP exposure for some measure of growth retardation (such as intrauterine growth retardation or small for gestational age) and for urinary tract anomalies. Having catalogued these effects, it should be noted that exposure assessment in the epidemiological studies published to date has been inadequate to definitively demonstrate an association of small magnitude. Exposure to DBP primarily has been based on routine (i.e., quarterly) monitoring of public water supplies for trihalomethanes (THM) matched to maternal residence. In order to determine whether an association exists between adverse reproductive and developmental effects and exposure to DBP, studies must consider the THM concentration and the quantity of the water actually consumed by pregnant women.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)103-124
Number of pages22
JournalRegulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology
Volume34
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2001

Fingerprint

Disinfection
Byproducts
Association reactions
Weights and Measures
Trihalomethanes
Toxicology
Nervous System Malformations
Defects
Very Low Birth Weight Infant
Stillbirth
Fetal Growth Retardation
Neural Tube Defects
Water
Water Supply
Chlorination
Halogenation
Neurology
Spontaneous Abortion
Urinary Tract
Water supply

Keywords

  • Birth defects
  • Chlorination
  • DBP
  • Developmental effects
  • Disinfection by-products
  • Reproductive effects
  • THM
  • Trihalomethanes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

Cite this

@article{229dd96efb0045a2b1e28e4b8d47f0cf,
title = "Weight of evidence for an association between adverse reproductive and developmental effects and exposure to disinfection by-products: A critical review",
abstract = "Disinfection by-products (DBP) are a side effect of water chlorination. Some toxicological studies suggest an association between DBP exposure and adverse reproductive and developmental effects. This investigation considered all toxicological and epidemiological evidence for the various effects, outcome by outcome. The weight of evidence demonstrated that no association with DBP exposure exists for over a dozen outcomes including low and very low birth weight, preterm delivery, some specific congenital anomalies, and neonatal death. The analysis found inconsistent or very weak results for all congenital anomalies/birth defects, all central nervous system anomalies, neural tube defects, spontaneous abortion, and stillbirth. The weight of evidence suggested a positive association with DBP exposure for some measure of growth retardation (such as intrauterine growth retardation or small for gestational age) and for urinary tract anomalies. Having catalogued these effects, it should be noted that exposure assessment in the epidemiological studies published to date has been inadequate to definitively demonstrate an association of small magnitude. Exposure to DBP primarily has been based on routine (i.e., quarterly) monitoring of public water supplies for trihalomethanes (THM) matched to maternal residence. In order to determine whether an association exists between adverse reproductive and developmental effects and exposure to DBP, studies must consider the THM concentration and the quantity of the water actually consumed by pregnant women.",
keywords = "Birth defects, Chlorination, DBP, Developmental effects, Disinfection by-products, Reproductive effects, THM, Trihalomethanes",
author = "Graves, {Carol Gevecker} and Genevieve Matanoski and Tardiff, {Robert G.}",
year = "2001",
doi = "10.1006/rtph.2001.1494",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "34",
pages = "103--124",
journal = "Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology",
issn = "0273-2300",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Weight of evidence for an association between adverse reproductive and developmental effects and exposure to disinfection by-products

T2 - A critical review

AU - Graves, Carol Gevecker

AU - Matanoski, Genevieve

AU - Tardiff, Robert G.

PY - 2001

Y1 - 2001

N2 - Disinfection by-products (DBP) are a side effect of water chlorination. Some toxicological studies suggest an association between DBP exposure and adverse reproductive and developmental effects. This investigation considered all toxicological and epidemiological evidence for the various effects, outcome by outcome. The weight of evidence demonstrated that no association with DBP exposure exists for over a dozen outcomes including low and very low birth weight, preterm delivery, some specific congenital anomalies, and neonatal death. The analysis found inconsistent or very weak results for all congenital anomalies/birth defects, all central nervous system anomalies, neural tube defects, spontaneous abortion, and stillbirth. The weight of evidence suggested a positive association with DBP exposure for some measure of growth retardation (such as intrauterine growth retardation or small for gestational age) and for urinary tract anomalies. Having catalogued these effects, it should be noted that exposure assessment in the epidemiological studies published to date has been inadequate to definitively demonstrate an association of small magnitude. Exposure to DBP primarily has been based on routine (i.e., quarterly) monitoring of public water supplies for trihalomethanes (THM) matched to maternal residence. In order to determine whether an association exists between adverse reproductive and developmental effects and exposure to DBP, studies must consider the THM concentration and the quantity of the water actually consumed by pregnant women.

AB - Disinfection by-products (DBP) are a side effect of water chlorination. Some toxicological studies suggest an association between DBP exposure and adverse reproductive and developmental effects. This investigation considered all toxicological and epidemiological evidence for the various effects, outcome by outcome. The weight of evidence demonstrated that no association with DBP exposure exists for over a dozen outcomes including low and very low birth weight, preterm delivery, some specific congenital anomalies, and neonatal death. The analysis found inconsistent or very weak results for all congenital anomalies/birth defects, all central nervous system anomalies, neural tube defects, spontaneous abortion, and stillbirth. The weight of evidence suggested a positive association with DBP exposure for some measure of growth retardation (such as intrauterine growth retardation or small for gestational age) and for urinary tract anomalies. Having catalogued these effects, it should be noted that exposure assessment in the epidemiological studies published to date has been inadequate to definitively demonstrate an association of small magnitude. Exposure to DBP primarily has been based on routine (i.e., quarterly) monitoring of public water supplies for trihalomethanes (THM) matched to maternal residence. In order to determine whether an association exists between adverse reproductive and developmental effects and exposure to DBP, studies must consider the THM concentration and the quantity of the water actually consumed by pregnant women.

KW - Birth defects

KW - Chlorination

KW - DBP

KW - Developmental effects

KW - Disinfection by-products

KW - Reproductive effects

KW - THM

KW - Trihalomethanes

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0034749605&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0034749605&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1006/rtph.2001.1494

DO - 10.1006/rtph.2001.1494

M3 - Article

C2 - 11603954

AN - SCOPUS:0034749605

VL - 34

SP - 103

EP - 124

JO - Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology

JF - Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology

SN - 0273-2300

IS - 2

ER -