Benzoate and phenylacetate improve prognosis in inherited urea cycle enzyme deficiencies by increasing waste nitrogen excretion as amino acid acylation products. We studied metabolic changes caused by these substances and their pharmacokinetics in a biochemically different urea cycle disorder, lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI), under strictly standardized induction of hyperammonemia. Five patients with LPI received an intravenous infusion of 6.6 mmol/kg l-alanine alone and separately with 2.0 mmol/kg of benzoate or phenylacetate in 90 min. Blood for ammonia, serum urea and creatinine, plasma benzoate, hippurate, phenylacetate, phenylacetylgluta-mine, and amino acids was obtained at 0, 120, 180, and 270 min. Urine was collected in four consecutive 6-h periods. Alanine caused hyperammonemia: maximum increase 107, 28-411 μM (geometric mean, 95% confidence interval); ammonia increments were nearly identical after alanine + benzoate (60, 17-213 μM)and alanine + phenylacetate (79, 13-467 μM) (NS). Mean plasma benzoate was 6.0 mM when extrapolated to the end of alanine + benzoate infusions; phenylacetate was 4.9 mM at the end of alanine + phenylacetate. Transient toxicity (dizziness, nausea, vomiting) occurred in four patients at the end of combined infusions, and we suggest upper therapeutic plasma concentrations of 4.5 mM for benzoate and 3.5 mM for phenylacetate. Benzoate and phenylacetate then decreased following first-order kinetics with ti/2s of 273 and 254 min, respectively. Maximal plasma hippurate (0.24, 0.14-0.40 mM) was lower than maximal phenylac-etylglutamine (0.48, 0.22-1.06 μM, p = 0.008). Orotic acid excretion was 5.62, 1.84-17.14 μmol/kg per h after alanine, but only 1.07, 0.04-25.62 jtmol/kg per h after alanine + benzoate (p <0.151) and 2.74,0.01-16.25 jimol/ kg per h after alanine + phenylacetate(p < 0.016). Urea excretions were in the same range after all loads. Urinary hippurate nitrogen after alanine + benzoate and phenyl-acetylglutamine nitrogen after alanine + phenylacetate accounted for an average of 12 and 22 of that in urea in the first 6 h. Of the benzoate and phenylacetate given, 65 and 51% were excreted in 24 h as hippurate and phenylacetylglutamine, respectively; less than 3.5% appeared unchanged in urine.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health