Volunteerism and self-selection bias in human positron emission tomography neuroimaging research

Lynn Marie Oswald, Gary S Wand, Shijun Zhu, Victoria Selby

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Scientists have known for decades that persons who volunteer for behavioral research may be different from those who decline participation and that characteristics differentiating volunteers from non-volunteers may vary depending on the nature of the research. There is evidence that volunteer self-selection can impact representativeness of samples in studies involving physically or psychologically stressful procedures, such as electric shocks, sensory isolation, or drug effects. However, the degree to which self-selection influences sample characteristics in "stressful" studies involving positron emission tomography (PET) has not been evaluated. Since estimation of population parameters, robustness of findings, and validity of inferred relationships can all be impacted by volunteer bias, it is important to determine if self-selection may act as an unrecognized confound in such studies. In the present investigation, we obtained baseline data on 114 (56M, 58F) subjects who participated in a study involving completion of several self-report questionnaires and behavioral performance tasks. Participants were later given the opportunity to enroll in an [11C]raclopride PET study involving intravenous amphetamine (AMPH) administration. Demographic characteristics, personality traits, and task performance of subjects who consented to the latter study were compared with those who declined participation. Findings showed that the principal personality trait that distinguished the two groups was sensation-seeking; volunteers scored significantly higher on this dimension than non-volunteers. Males were more likely to volunteer than females. However, results of mediation analysis suggested that the relationship between gender and volunteer status was mediated by greater sensation-seeking traits in the males. Implications of these findings are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)163-176
Number of pages14
JournalBrain Imaging and Behavior
Volume7
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2013

Fingerprint

Selection Bias
Neuroimaging
Positron-Emission Tomography
Volunteers
Research
Task Performance and Analysis
Personality
Raclopride
Behavioral Research
Amphetamine
Intravenous Administration
Self Report
Shock
Demography
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Population

Keywords

  • Gender
  • Human
  • Personality
  • Positron emission tomography (PET)
  • Sensation-seeking
  • Volunteerism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Neurology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Cite this

Volunteerism and self-selection bias in human positron emission tomography neuroimaging research. / Oswald, Lynn Marie; Wand, Gary S; Zhu, Shijun; Selby, Victoria.

In: Brain Imaging and Behavior, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2013, p. 163-176.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{30554c4079344024826cb083eb233233,
title = "Volunteerism and self-selection bias in human positron emission tomography neuroimaging research",
abstract = "Scientists have known for decades that persons who volunteer for behavioral research may be different from those who decline participation and that characteristics differentiating volunteers from non-volunteers may vary depending on the nature of the research. There is evidence that volunteer self-selection can impact representativeness of samples in studies involving physically or psychologically stressful procedures, such as electric shocks, sensory isolation, or drug effects. However, the degree to which self-selection influences sample characteristics in {"}stressful{"} studies involving positron emission tomography (PET) has not been evaluated. Since estimation of population parameters, robustness of findings, and validity of inferred relationships can all be impacted by volunteer bias, it is important to determine if self-selection may act as an unrecognized confound in such studies. In the present investigation, we obtained baseline data on 114 (56M, 58F) subjects who participated in a study involving completion of several self-report questionnaires and behavioral performance tasks. Participants were later given the opportunity to enroll in an [11C]raclopride PET study involving intravenous amphetamine (AMPH) administration. Demographic characteristics, personality traits, and task performance of subjects who consented to the latter study were compared with those who declined participation. Findings showed that the principal personality trait that distinguished the two groups was sensation-seeking; volunteers scored significantly higher on this dimension than non-volunteers. Males were more likely to volunteer than females. However, results of mediation analysis suggested that the relationship between gender and volunteer status was mediated by greater sensation-seeking traits in the males. Implications of these findings are discussed.",
keywords = "Gender, Human, Personality, Positron emission tomography (PET), Sensation-seeking, Volunteerism",
author = "Oswald, {Lynn Marie} and Wand, {Gary S} and Shijun Zhu and Victoria Selby",
year = "2013",
doi = "10.1007/s11682-012-9210-3",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "7",
pages = "163--176",
journal = "Brain Imaging and Behavior",
issn = "1931-7557",
publisher = "Springer New York",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Volunteerism and self-selection bias in human positron emission tomography neuroimaging research

AU - Oswald, Lynn Marie

AU - Wand, Gary S

AU - Zhu, Shijun

AU - Selby, Victoria

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - Scientists have known for decades that persons who volunteer for behavioral research may be different from those who decline participation and that characteristics differentiating volunteers from non-volunteers may vary depending on the nature of the research. There is evidence that volunteer self-selection can impact representativeness of samples in studies involving physically or psychologically stressful procedures, such as electric shocks, sensory isolation, or drug effects. However, the degree to which self-selection influences sample characteristics in "stressful" studies involving positron emission tomography (PET) has not been evaluated. Since estimation of population parameters, robustness of findings, and validity of inferred relationships can all be impacted by volunteer bias, it is important to determine if self-selection may act as an unrecognized confound in such studies. In the present investigation, we obtained baseline data on 114 (56M, 58F) subjects who participated in a study involving completion of several self-report questionnaires and behavioral performance tasks. Participants were later given the opportunity to enroll in an [11C]raclopride PET study involving intravenous amphetamine (AMPH) administration. Demographic characteristics, personality traits, and task performance of subjects who consented to the latter study were compared with those who declined participation. Findings showed that the principal personality trait that distinguished the two groups was sensation-seeking; volunteers scored significantly higher on this dimension than non-volunteers. Males were more likely to volunteer than females. However, results of mediation analysis suggested that the relationship between gender and volunteer status was mediated by greater sensation-seeking traits in the males. Implications of these findings are discussed.

AB - Scientists have known for decades that persons who volunteer for behavioral research may be different from those who decline participation and that characteristics differentiating volunteers from non-volunteers may vary depending on the nature of the research. There is evidence that volunteer self-selection can impact representativeness of samples in studies involving physically or psychologically stressful procedures, such as electric shocks, sensory isolation, or drug effects. However, the degree to which self-selection influences sample characteristics in "stressful" studies involving positron emission tomography (PET) has not been evaluated. Since estimation of population parameters, robustness of findings, and validity of inferred relationships can all be impacted by volunteer bias, it is important to determine if self-selection may act as an unrecognized confound in such studies. In the present investigation, we obtained baseline data on 114 (56M, 58F) subjects who participated in a study involving completion of several self-report questionnaires and behavioral performance tasks. Participants were later given the opportunity to enroll in an [11C]raclopride PET study involving intravenous amphetamine (AMPH) administration. Demographic characteristics, personality traits, and task performance of subjects who consented to the latter study were compared with those who declined participation. Findings showed that the principal personality trait that distinguished the two groups was sensation-seeking; volunteers scored significantly higher on this dimension than non-volunteers. Males were more likely to volunteer than females. However, results of mediation analysis suggested that the relationship between gender and volunteer status was mediated by greater sensation-seeking traits in the males. Implications of these findings are discussed.

KW - Gender

KW - Human

KW - Personality

KW - Positron emission tomography (PET)

KW - Sensation-seeking

KW - Volunteerism

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84876899911&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84876899911&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s11682-012-9210-3

DO - 10.1007/s11682-012-9210-3

M3 - Article

C2 - 23196924

AN - SCOPUS:84876899911

VL - 7

SP - 163

EP - 176

JO - Brain Imaging and Behavior

JF - Brain Imaging and Behavior

SN - 1931-7557

IS - 2

ER -