Objectives. To analyze the ability of volume-adjusted total, complexed, and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) to predict organ-confined cancer at radical prostatectomy in patients with nonpalpable disease. Methods. Collected sera were assayed for total PSA (tPSA), complexed PSA (cPSA), and free PSA (fPSA) in 78 men who underwent radical prostatectomy with nonpalpable prostate cancer. The pathologic results (organ-confined versus extraprostatic extension [EPE]), tPSA, cPSA, fPSA/tPSA ratio, cPSA/tPSA ratio, fPSA/cPSA ratio, tPSA density (tPSAD), cPSA density (cPSAD), and fPSA density (fPSAD) were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test and receiver operating characteristic curves. Results. Fifteen men (19.2%) had pathologic EPE. After stratifying the patients on the basis of the Beckman tPSA, the cPSAD, tPSAD, and fPSAD were significant predictors of EPE when comparing their respective medians in individuals with tPSA greater than 4.0 ng/mL. Statistically significant differences were noted between patients with and without EPE for tPSAD (P = 0.0015), cPSAD (P = 0.0018), and fPSAD (P = 0.0022), but not for the fPSA/tPSA, cPSA/tPSA, and fPSA/cPSA ratios. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was similar for tPSA (0.539) and cPSA (0.542), as it was for tPSAD (0.708), cPSAD (0.700), and fPSAD (0.731). The specificity and diagnostic accuracy of tPSAD, cPSAD, and fPSAD were significantly greater than those of tPSA and cPSA (specificity P <0.001; diagnostic accuracy P <0.05). Conclusions. In men with nonpalpable prostate cancer, the density parameters of tPSA, cPSA, and fPSA performed equivalently and appeared to enhance the predictability of EPE.
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