Purpose Voltage-based device-tracking (VDT) systems are commonly used for tracking invasive devices in electrophysiological cardiac-arrhythmia therapy. During electrophysiological procedures, electro-anatomic mapping workstations provide guidance by integrating VDT location and intracardiac electrocardiogram information with X-ray, computerized tomography, ultrasound, and MR images. MR assists navigation, mapping, and radiofrequency ablation. Multimodality interventions require multiple patient transfers between an MRI and the X-ray/ultrasound electrophysiological suite, increasing the likelihood of patient-motion and image misregistration. An MRI-compatible VDT system may increase efficiency, as there is currently no single method to track devices both inside and outside the MRI scanner. Methods An MRI-compatible VDT system was constructed by modifying a commercial system. Hardware was added to reduce MRI gradient-ramp and radiofrequency unblanking pulse interference. VDT patches and cables were modified to reduce heating. Five swine cardiac VDT electro-anatomic mapping interventions were performed, navigating inside and thereafter outside the MRI. Results Three-catheter VDT interventions were performed at >12 frames per second both inside and outside the MRI scanner with <3 mm error. Catheters were followed on VDT- and MRI-derived maps. Simultaneous VDT and imaging was possible in repetition time >32 ms sequences with <0.5 mm errors, and <5% MRI signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss. At shorter repetition times, only intracardiac electrocardiogram was reliable. Radiofrequency heating was <1.5°C. Conclusion An MRI-compatible VDT system is feasible.
- MRI imaging
- cardiac electrophysiology
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging