Voice Formants in Individuals with Congenital, Isolated, Lifetime Growth Hormone Deficiency

Eugenia H.O. Valença, Roberto Salvatori, Anita H.O. Souza, Luiz A. Oliveira-Neto, Alaíde H.A. Oliveira, Maria I.R. Gonçalves, Carla R.P. Oliveira, Jeferson S. D'Ávila, Valdinaldo A. Melo, Susana De Carvalho, Bruna M.R. De Andrade, Larisse S. Nascimento, Savinny B.De V. Rocha, Thais R. Ribeiro, Valeria M. Prado-Barreto, Enaldo V. Melo, Manuel H. Aguiar-Oliveira

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective To analyze the voice formants (F1, F2, F3, and F4 in Hz) of seven oral vowels, in Brazilian Portuguese, [a, ϵ, e, i, ⊃, o, and u] in adult individuals with congenital lifetime untreated isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD). Study Design This is a cross-sectional study. Methods Acoustic analysis of isolated vowels was performed in 33 individuals with IGHD, age 44.5 (17.6) years (16 women), and 29 controls, age 51.1 (17.6) years (15 women). Results Compared with controls, IGHD men showed higher values of F3 [i, e, and ϵ], P = 0.006, P = 0.022, and P = 0.006, respectively and F4 [i], P = 0.001 and lower values of F2 [u], P = 0.034; IGHD women presented higher values of F1 [i and e] P = 0.029 and P = 0.036; F2 [⊃] P = 0.006; F4 [⊃] P = 0.031 and lower values of F2 [i] P = 0.004. IGHD abolished most of the gender differences in formant frequencies present in controls. Conclusions Congenital, severe IGHD results in higher values of most formant frequencies, suggesting smaller oral and pharyngeal cavities. In addition, it causes a reduction in the effect of gender on the structure of the formants, maintaining a prepubertal acoustic prediction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)281-286
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Voice
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2016


  • Acoustic analysis
  • Formant frequencies
  • Growth hormone
  • Voice

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • LPN and LVN
  • Speech and Hearing


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