Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for metabolic syndromes. We examined whether vitamin D deficiency altered the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in older Koreans. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV 2008-2009 was used to examine the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and the prevalence of CVD in a representative population-based sample of 5,559 men and women aged ≥ 50 years. CVD was defined as angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, or stroke. The prevalence of CVD (7.0%) in the older Korean population was lower than that in the older US population, although average serum 25(OH)D levels were much lower in the Korean population. Additionally, serum 25(OH)D levels did not differ significantly between the CVD and non-CVD groups. However, subjects in the lowest category (< 25 nmol/l) of serum 25(OH)D level had the greatest prevalence of CVD, about two-fold higher than subjects in the highest category (> 75 nmol/l), after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, education level, residence location, and region. The prevalence of other risk factors for CVD, including higher waist circumference, fasting glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride levels and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, was also higher among subjects in the lowest category than among those in the highest category. In conclusion, low serum 25(OH)D may be an independent risk factor for CVD in older Koreans.
- Cardiovascular disease
- Korean national health and nutrition examination survey
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science
- Nutrition and Dietetics