Purpose: To report outcomes and complications of Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis (KPro) implantation in children. Design: Retrospective, multicenter case series. Participants: All children 16 years of age or younger who underwent KPro surgery at 3 ophthalmology centers in Canada between January 2010 and November 2014. Methods: Records of patients having undergone KPro implantation were reviewed. Data on preoperative characteristics, surgical procedure(s) performed, and postoperative outcomes were collected and analyzed. Main Outcome Measures: Intraoperative and postoperative complications, device retention, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Results: The KPro was implanted in 11 eyes of 11 patients 0.9 to 15.5 years of age, with 6 being primary corneal procedures. Best-corrected visual acuity recorded before surgery ranged from 20/600 to light perception (LP), and vision in 2 eyes was fix and follow. All patients had been diagnosed with glaucoma and 6 eyes had glaucoma drainage devices (GDDs) inserted before KPro implantation. At last follow-up (mean, 41.8 months; range, 6.5–85.0 months), 2 eyes retained BCVA of 20/400 or better, whereas 5 eyes lost LP. Postoperative complications included retroprosthetic membrane (9 eyes), corneal melt (5 eyes), infectious keratitis (3 eyes), endophthalmitis (3 eyes), GDD erosion (2 eyes), and retinal detachment (5 eyes). The initial KPro was retained in 4 eyes (36.4%). Conclusions: Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis implantation in children is associated with a substantially higher rate of complications, higher chance of device failure, and worse visual outcomes than observed in adults. In view of these results, the authors do not recommend the use of the KPro in the pediatric population.
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