Viruses as adjuvants for autoimmunity: Evidence from Coxsackievirus-induced myocarditis

DeLisa Fairweather, Sylvia Frisancho-Kiss, Noel R. Rose

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Adjuvants historically are considered to stimulate immune responses 'non-specifically'. Recently, a renewed understanding of the critical role of innate immunity in influencing the development of an adaptive immune response has led researchers to a better understanding of 'the adjuvant effect'. Although innate immune cells do not respond to specific antigenic epitopes on pathogens, they do produce restricted responses to particular classes of pathogens via pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLR). Coxsackievirus infection was found to upregulate TLR4 on mast cells and macrophages immediately following infection. Although both susceptible and resistant mice produce a mixture of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, susceptible mice have increased levels of key proinflammatory cytokines, increased numbers of mast cells, and go on to develop chronic autoimmune heart disease. TLR4 signalling also increases acute myocarditis and proinflammatory cytokines in the heart. Many similarities are described in the pathogenesis of Coxsackievirus and the adjuvant-induced model of myocarditis including upregulation of particular TLRs and cytokines soon after inoculation. Recent findings suggest that mast cell activation by viruses or adjuvants may be important in initiating autoimmune disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)17-27
Number of pages11
JournalReviews in Medical Virology
Volume15
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2005

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Enterovirus
Myocarditis
Autoimmunity
Mast Cells
Cytokines
Viruses
Autoimmune Diseases
Up-Regulation
Coxsackievirus Infections
Pattern Recognition Receptors
Virus Activation
Toll-Like Receptors
Adaptive Immunity
Innate Immunity
Epitopes
Heart Diseases
Macrophages
Research Personnel
Infection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology

Cite this

Viruses as adjuvants for autoimmunity : Evidence from Coxsackievirus-induced myocarditis. / Fairweather, DeLisa; Frisancho-Kiss, Sylvia; Rose, Noel R.

In: Reviews in Medical Virology, Vol. 15, No. 1, 01.2005, p. 17-27.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Fairweather, DeLisa ; Frisancho-Kiss, Sylvia ; Rose, Noel R. / Viruses as adjuvants for autoimmunity : Evidence from Coxsackievirus-induced myocarditis. In: Reviews in Medical Virology. 2005 ; Vol. 15, No. 1. pp. 17-27.
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