Persons at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are also likely to be at risk for other infectious pathogens, including hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV). These are bloodborne pathogens transmitted through similar routes; for example, via injection drug use (IDU), sexual contact, or from mother to child during pregnancy or birth. In some settings, the prevalence of coinfection with HBV and/or HCV is high. In the context of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), liver disease has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected persons. Further, coinfection with viral hepatitis may complicate the delivery of ART by increasing the risk of drug-related hepatoxicity and impacting the selection of specific agents (e.g., those dually active against HIV and HBV). Expert guidelines developed in the United States and Europe recommend screening of all HIV-infected persons for infection with HCV and HBV and appropriate management of those found to be chronically infected. Treatment strategies for HBV infection include the use of nucleos(t)ide analogues with or without anti-HIV activity and/or peginterferon alfa (PegIFN) whereas HCV treatment is limited to the combination of PegIFN and ribavirin (RBV). Current approaches to management of HIV-infected persons coinfected with HBV or HCV are discussed in this review.
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