Verbal and visual memory: Characterizing the clinical and intermediate phenotype in schizophrenia

Shayna L. Skelley, Terry E. Goldberg, Michael F. Egan, Daniel Weinberger, James M. Gold

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Verbal and visual memory deficits are prominent trait markers for schizophrenia, with impairments also observed in first-degree relatives [Snitz, B.E., Macdonald, A.W., 3rd, & Carter, C.S. (2006). Cognitive deficits in unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients: a meta-analytic review of putative endophenotypes. Schizophr Bull, 32(1), 179-194]. It remains unclear whether deficits lie in encoding or savings, and whether the deficit is heritable. Objective: To determine which features of memory performance are impaired in both patients and their healthy siblings, possibly reflecting shared genetic effects. Method: We tested episodic memory using Logical Memory (LM) and Visual Reproduction (VR) tasks of the Wechsler Memory Scale (Revised). Participants included patients with schizophrenia (n = 162), their nonpsychotic siblings (n = 146), and controls (n = 205), recruited for the "CBDB/NIMH Sibling Study". We assessed immediate encoding and 30 minute and 24 hour delayed recall as well as savings scores for the "short delay" (immediate to 30 min) and "long delay" (30 min to 24 h) intervals. Results: We observed marked verbal recall deficits in both patients and siblings compared to controls for all stages (p < .0001). Only patients experienced significant verbal and visual savings deficits over short delays (p < .0001) as well as verbal deficits over long delays (p < .005). In siblings, no saving score difficulty was apparent for either measure. Conclusions: Our results confirm shared impairment in verbal learning, but not memory, for both patients and siblings, therefore marking it as a potential schizophrenia-associated intermediate phenotype. The results implicate neural systems involved in immediate encoding and stabilization of memory representations in genetic risk for schizophrenia. In contrast, visual recall and savings impairments appear to be illness, i.e. state, deficits.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)78-85
Number of pages8
JournalSchizophrenia Research
Volume105
Issue number1-3
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2008
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Siblings
Schizophrenia
Phenotype
Endophenotypes
National Institute of Mental Health (U.S.)
Wechsler Scales
Verbal Learning
Episodic Memory
Memory Disorders
Reproduction

Keywords

  • Cognition
  • Endophenotype
  • Episodic
  • Family
  • Genetics
  • Learning
  • Memory
  • Phenotype
  • Recall
  • Retention
  • Savings
  • Schizophrenia
  • Verbal
  • Visual
  • Wechsler Memory Scale

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry

Cite this

Verbal and visual memory : Characterizing the clinical and intermediate phenotype in schizophrenia. / Skelley, Shayna L.; Goldberg, Terry E.; Egan, Michael F.; Weinberger, Daniel; Gold, James M.

In: Schizophrenia Research, Vol. 105, No. 1-3, 10.2008, p. 78-85.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Skelley, Shayna L. ; Goldberg, Terry E. ; Egan, Michael F. ; Weinberger, Daniel ; Gold, James M. / Verbal and visual memory : Characterizing the clinical and intermediate phenotype in schizophrenia. In: Schizophrenia Research. 2008 ; Vol. 105, No. 1-3. pp. 78-85.
@article{a2fe4e68468e4de9825db34deefcc1af,
title = "Verbal and visual memory: Characterizing the clinical and intermediate phenotype in schizophrenia",
abstract = "Background: Verbal and visual memory deficits are prominent trait markers for schizophrenia, with impairments also observed in first-degree relatives [Snitz, B.E., Macdonald, A.W., 3rd, & Carter, C.S. (2006). Cognitive deficits in unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients: a meta-analytic review of putative endophenotypes. Schizophr Bull, 32(1), 179-194]. It remains unclear whether deficits lie in encoding or savings, and whether the deficit is heritable. Objective: To determine which features of memory performance are impaired in both patients and their healthy siblings, possibly reflecting shared genetic effects. Method: We tested episodic memory using Logical Memory (LM) and Visual Reproduction (VR) tasks of the Wechsler Memory Scale (Revised). Participants included patients with schizophrenia (n = 162), their nonpsychotic siblings (n = 146), and controls (n = 205), recruited for the {"}CBDB/NIMH Sibling Study{"}. We assessed immediate encoding and 30 minute and 24 hour delayed recall as well as savings scores for the {"}short delay{"} (immediate to 30 min) and {"}long delay{"} (30 min to 24 h) intervals. Results: We observed marked verbal recall deficits in both patients and siblings compared to controls for all stages (p < .0001). Only patients experienced significant verbal and visual savings deficits over short delays (p < .0001) as well as verbal deficits over long delays (p < .005). In siblings, no saving score difficulty was apparent for either measure. Conclusions: Our results confirm shared impairment in verbal learning, but not memory, for both patients and siblings, therefore marking it as a potential schizophrenia-associated intermediate phenotype. The results implicate neural systems involved in immediate encoding and stabilization of memory representations in genetic risk for schizophrenia. In contrast, visual recall and savings impairments appear to be illness, i.e. state, deficits.",
keywords = "Cognition, Endophenotype, Episodic, Family, Genetics, Learning, Memory, Phenotype, Recall, Retention, Savings, Schizophrenia, Verbal, Visual, Wechsler Memory Scale",
author = "Skelley, {Shayna L.} and Goldberg, {Terry E.} and Egan, {Michael F.} and Daniel Weinberger and Gold, {James M.}",
year = "2008",
month = "10",
doi = "10.1016/j.schres.2008.05.027",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "105",
pages = "78--85",
journal = "Schizophrenia Research",
issn = "0920-9964",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "1-3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Verbal and visual memory

T2 - Characterizing the clinical and intermediate phenotype in schizophrenia

AU - Skelley, Shayna L.

AU - Goldberg, Terry E.

AU - Egan, Michael F.

AU - Weinberger, Daniel

AU - Gold, James M.

PY - 2008/10

Y1 - 2008/10

N2 - Background: Verbal and visual memory deficits are prominent trait markers for schizophrenia, with impairments also observed in first-degree relatives [Snitz, B.E., Macdonald, A.W., 3rd, & Carter, C.S. (2006). Cognitive deficits in unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients: a meta-analytic review of putative endophenotypes. Schizophr Bull, 32(1), 179-194]. It remains unclear whether deficits lie in encoding or savings, and whether the deficit is heritable. Objective: To determine which features of memory performance are impaired in both patients and their healthy siblings, possibly reflecting shared genetic effects. Method: We tested episodic memory using Logical Memory (LM) and Visual Reproduction (VR) tasks of the Wechsler Memory Scale (Revised). Participants included patients with schizophrenia (n = 162), their nonpsychotic siblings (n = 146), and controls (n = 205), recruited for the "CBDB/NIMH Sibling Study". We assessed immediate encoding and 30 minute and 24 hour delayed recall as well as savings scores for the "short delay" (immediate to 30 min) and "long delay" (30 min to 24 h) intervals. Results: We observed marked verbal recall deficits in both patients and siblings compared to controls for all stages (p < .0001). Only patients experienced significant verbal and visual savings deficits over short delays (p < .0001) as well as verbal deficits over long delays (p < .005). In siblings, no saving score difficulty was apparent for either measure. Conclusions: Our results confirm shared impairment in verbal learning, but not memory, for both patients and siblings, therefore marking it as a potential schizophrenia-associated intermediate phenotype. The results implicate neural systems involved in immediate encoding and stabilization of memory representations in genetic risk for schizophrenia. In contrast, visual recall and savings impairments appear to be illness, i.e. state, deficits.

AB - Background: Verbal and visual memory deficits are prominent trait markers for schizophrenia, with impairments also observed in first-degree relatives [Snitz, B.E., Macdonald, A.W., 3rd, & Carter, C.S. (2006). Cognitive deficits in unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients: a meta-analytic review of putative endophenotypes. Schizophr Bull, 32(1), 179-194]. It remains unclear whether deficits lie in encoding or savings, and whether the deficit is heritable. Objective: To determine which features of memory performance are impaired in both patients and their healthy siblings, possibly reflecting shared genetic effects. Method: We tested episodic memory using Logical Memory (LM) and Visual Reproduction (VR) tasks of the Wechsler Memory Scale (Revised). Participants included patients with schizophrenia (n = 162), their nonpsychotic siblings (n = 146), and controls (n = 205), recruited for the "CBDB/NIMH Sibling Study". We assessed immediate encoding and 30 minute and 24 hour delayed recall as well as savings scores for the "short delay" (immediate to 30 min) and "long delay" (30 min to 24 h) intervals. Results: We observed marked verbal recall deficits in both patients and siblings compared to controls for all stages (p < .0001). Only patients experienced significant verbal and visual savings deficits over short delays (p < .0001) as well as verbal deficits over long delays (p < .005). In siblings, no saving score difficulty was apparent for either measure. Conclusions: Our results confirm shared impairment in verbal learning, but not memory, for both patients and siblings, therefore marking it as a potential schizophrenia-associated intermediate phenotype. The results implicate neural systems involved in immediate encoding and stabilization of memory representations in genetic risk for schizophrenia. In contrast, visual recall and savings impairments appear to be illness, i.e. state, deficits.

KW - Cognition

KW - Endophenotype

KW - Episodic

KW - Family

KW - Genetics

KW - Learning

KW - Memory

KW - Phenotype

KW - Recall

KW - Retention

KW - Savings

KW - Schizophrenia

KW - Verbal

KW - Visual

KW - Wechsler Memory Scale

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=52949118071&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=52949118071&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.schres.2008.05.027

DO - 10.1016/j.schres.2008.05.027

M3 - Article

C2 - 18617370

AN - SCOPUS:52949118071

VL - 105

SP - 78

EP - 85

JO - Schizophrenia Research

JF - Schizophrenia Research

SN - 0920-9964

IS - 1-3

ER -