Venom Immunotherapy: Questions and Controversies

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Questions and controversies regarding venom immunotherapy (VIT) remain. It is important to recognize risk factors for severe sting anaphylaxis that guide the recommendation for testing, epinephrine injectors, and VIT. Premedication, rush VIT, and omalizumab are successful in overcoming recurrent systemic reactions to VIT. A maintenance dose is adequate in children, but higher doses are needed in high-risk patients. The consensus on risk of β-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in patients on VIT has shifted to the belief that risk is small. The decision to stop VIT after 5 years rests on known risk factors rather than any diagnostic tests.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)59-68
Number of pages10
JournalImmunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2020


  • Anaphylaxis
  • Epinephrine
  • Insect sting
  • Venom allergy
  • Venom immunotherapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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