Chronic hydrocephalus (CH) is often associated with decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen levels. While the exact pathophysiology is not clear, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) may be involved. Because the choroid plexus (CP) is involved in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production and secretes numerous growth factors including VEGF, it is important to understand VEGF/VEGFR-2 levels in the CP-CSF circulatory system. Our results showed significant decreases in CBF and VEGFR-2 levels in frontal cortex (FC) in CH compared with SC; there were no significant changes in VEGF levels. CBF change in FC was positively correlated with VEGFR-2 levels (P = 0.024). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed robust expression of VEGF/VEGFR-2 in CP. After CH induction, ventricular CSF volume and VEGF levels significantly increased. These results suggest that the decreased VEGFR-2 levels in FC may be contributed to decreased CBF and increased ventricular CSF-VEGF levels possibly reflected a hypoxic response and/or accumulation of VEGF from CP secretion after blockage of CSF outlet. Further investigation into CSF-VEGF levels in different sites may provide a better understanding of VEGF/VEGFR-2 modulation in the normal and hydrocephalic brain, and may represent a feasible approach to potential therapeutic options for hydrocephalus.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology