Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is widely recognized and rarely involves the central nervous system (CNS). Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are at an increased risk for developing CNS-IRIS upon initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This syndrome can be fatal and requires extreme vigilance in determining if a treatable underlying opportunistic infection exists. We report here a case of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vasculopathy and CNS-IRIS in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient who required prolonged steroid treatment for clinical stabilization. There are no established treatment regimens for IRIS and the use of corticosteroids in this syndrome remains controversial. Similar to our patient, severe cases of CNS-IRIS may benefit from high-dose intravenous corticosteroid treatment followed by an oral prednisone taper.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience