Sterile alpha motif and HD domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) restricts human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in myeloid cells but is inactivated by certain classes of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Vpx proteins. Vpx proteins recruit the DCAF1-CRL4 E3 ubiquitin ligase to trigger species-specific SAMHD1 degradation. Determinants of SIV Vpxmediated primate SAMHD1 degradation have been mapped to its C terminus. In this study, we have identified the N terminus of human SAMHD1 as a major species-specific determinant of Vpx-mediated suppression. The SIVmnd2 and SIVrcm Vpx proteins recognize the N terminus of rhesus, but not human, SAMHD1. We have also demonstrated that variation of two primate lineagespecific residues between human and rhesus SAMHD1 proteins determine resistance to SIVmnd2 and SIVrcm Vpx proteins. These residues (Cys15 and Ser52) are sequentially mutated to Phe in different lineages of Old World monkeys. Consequently, SIVmnd2 and SIVrcm Vpx proteins that could recognize Phe15-and Phe52-containing SAMHD1 could not inactivate human SAMHD1, which contains Cys15 and Ser52. In contrast, SIVmac Vpx, which targets the C terminus of SAMHD1 molecules, could inactivate various primate SAMHD1 molecules with divergent C-terminal sequences. Both C terminus-targeted SIVmac Vpx and N terminus-targeted SIVrcm Vpx require DCAF1 for the induction of SAMHD1 degradation. The ability of SIV Vpx to restrict SAMHD1 among different primate species is a manifestation of the SAMHD1 evolutionary pattern among those species.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science