Vancomycin levels in the vitreous cavity after intravenous administration

T. A. Meredith, H. E. Aguilar, A. Shaarawy, M. Kincaid, J. Dick, M. R. Niesman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

PURPOSE: We studied the effects of inflammation, repeated antibiotic doses, and the surgical status of the eye on penetration of vancomycin hydrochloride into the rabbit vitreous cavity after intravenous administration. METHODS: We studied three anatomic states (phakic, aphakic, and aphakic, vitrectomy-treated eyes) subdividing each into inflamed and noninflamed groups. Intravenous vancomycin hydrochloride (15 mg/kg of body weight) was administered every 12 hours for 48 hours. Eyes were harvested for the assay of vitreous cavity antibiotic levels at various intervals from one to 49 hours. We determined concentrations and calculated mean values and S.E.M. RESULTS: Therapeutic levels were not established in the vitreous cavity at any time period in the two phakic groups. At 25 hours, the inflamed aphakic eyes had concentrations of 5.05 ± 1.9 μg/ml and the control noninflamed aphakic eyes 4.5 ± 1.23 μg/ml; slight increases were found by 49 hours. Concentrations tested in the aphakic, vitrectomy-treated eyes at two, 13, 25, and 49 hours demonstrated progressive increases both in the inflamed eyes (5.4 ± 2.4 μg/ml, 9.64 ± 4.25 μg/ml, 9.2 ± 3.96 μg/ml, 10.34 ± 4.49 μg/ml) and noninflamed eyes (3.52 ± 2.1 μg/ml, 5.4 ± 1.96 μg/ml, 6.8 ± 2.53 μg/ml, 8.7 ± 5.44 μg/ml). CONCLUSIONS: Vitreous vancomycin concentrations in aphakic and aphakic, vitrectomy-treated eyes after intravenous administration exceed the minimal inhibitory concentrations for the usual gram-positive pathogens that create endophthalmitis, suggesting a role for intravenous vancomycin in the treatment of bacterial endophthalmitis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)774-778
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican Journal of Ophthalmology
Volume119
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1995
Externally publishedYes

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Vancomycin
Intravenous Administration
Vitrectomy
Endophthalmitis
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Body Weight
Rabbits
Inflammation
Therapeutics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology

Cite this

Meredith, T. A., Aguilar, H. E., Shaarawy, A., Kincaid, M., Dick, J., & Niesman, M. R. (1995). Vancomycin levels in the vitreous cavity after intravenous administration. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 119(6), 774-778.

Vancomycin levels in the vitreous cavity after intravenous administration. / Meredith, T. A.; Aguilar, H. E.; Shaarawy, A.; Kincaid, M.; Dick, J.; Niesman, M. R.

In: American Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 119, No. 6, 1995, p. 774-778.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Meredith, TA, Aguilar, HE, Shaarawy, A, Kincaid, M, Dick, J & Niesman, MR 1995, 'Vancomycin levels in the vitreous cavity after intravenous administration', American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 119, no. 6, pp. 774-778.
Meredith TA, Aguilar HE, Shaarawy A, Kincaid M, Dick J, Niesman MR. Vancomycin levels in the vitreous cavity after intravenous administration. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 1995;119(6):774-778.
Meredith, T. A. ; Aguilar, H. E. ; Shaarawy, A. ; Kincaid, M. ; Dick, J. ; Niesman, M. R. / Vancomycin levels in the vitreous cavity after intravenous administration. In: American Journal of Ophthalmology. 1995 ; Vol. 119, No. 6. pp. 774-778.
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abstract = "PURPOSE: We studied the effects of inflammation, repeated antibiotic doses, and the surgical status of the eye on penetration of vancomycin hydrochloride into the rabbit vitreous cavity after intravenous administration. METHODS: We studied three anatomic states (phakic, aphakic, and aphakic, vitrectomy-treated eyes) subdividing each into inflamed and noninflamed groups. Intravenous vancomycin hydrochloride (15 mg/kg of body weight) was administered every 12 hours for 48 hours. Eyes were harvested for the assay of vitreous cavity antibiotic levels at various intervals from one to 49 hours. We determined concentrations and calculated mean values and S.E.M. RESULTS: Therapeutic levels were not established in the vitreous cavity at any time period in the two phakic groups. At 25 hours, the inflamed aphakic eyes had concentrations of 5.05 ± 1.9 μg/ml and the control noninflamed aphakic eyes 4.5 ± 1.23 μg/ml; slight increases were found by 49 hours. Concentrations tested in the aphakic, vitrectomy-treated eyes at two, 13, 25, and 49 hours demonstrated progressive increases both in the inflamed eyes (5.4 ± 2.4 μg/ml, 9.64 ± 4.25 μg/ml, 9.2 ± 3.96 μg/ml, 10.34 ± 4.49 μg/ml) and noninflamed eyes (3.52 ± 2.1 μg/ml, 5.4 ± 1.96 μg/ml, 6.8 ± 2.53 μg/ml, 8.7 ± 5.44 μg/ml). CONCLUSIONS: Vitreous vancomycin concentrations in aphakic and aphakic, vitrectomy-treated eyes after intravenous administration exceed the minimal inhibitory concentrations for the usual gram-positive pathogens that create endophthalmitis, suggesting a role for intravenous vancomycin in the treatment of bacterial endophthalmitis.",
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