Valproic Acid Treatment Decreases Serum Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein and Neurofilament Light Chain Levels in Swine Subjected to Traumatic Brain Injury

Frederick Korley, Vahagn C. Nikolian, Aaron M. Williams, Isabel S. Dennahy, Michael Weykamp, Hasan B. Alam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of valproic acid (VPA) treatment on serum glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neurofilament light chain (NF-L) levels. To achieve this aim, we obtained serum samples from: 1) 10 Yorkshire swine subjected to controlled cortical impact traumatic brain injury (CCI TBI) + polytrauma and randomized to receive either normal saline (NS) + VPA (n = 5) or NS alone (n = 5) and 2) five additional swine subjected to CCI TBI without polytrauma and treated with VPA. GFAP and NF-L levels were measured in samples obtained from baseline until 10 days post-injury using a digital immunoassay from Quanterix Corporation. We found that elevated GFAP and NF-L levels were first detected at 2 h post-injury; and peaked at 24 h and 72 h respectively. GFAP levels returned to baseline levels by Day 10, while NF-L remained elevated at Day 10. In TBI + polytrauma swine, the magnitude and duration of biomarker elevation, quantified by the area under the biomarker-concentration-versus-time curve during the first 10 days (AUC0-10days), was higher in the NS group, compared with the VPA group. For GFAP, the AUC0-10days was 45,535 (IQR: 35,741-105,711) and 22,837 (IQR: 8,082-46,627) for the NS and NS+VPA groups, respectively. For NF-L, the AUC0-10days was 43,073 (IQR: 18,739-120,794) and 4,475 (2,868-11,157) for the NS and NS+VPA groups, respectively. Twenty-four hour GFAP and NF-L levels had the strongest correlation with lesion size and time to normalization of behavior. Accordingly, we conclude that treatment with VPA results in significantly lower serum GFAP and NF-L levels. The time-point at which GFAP and NF-L levels have the strongest correlation with outcome is 24 h post-injury.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1185-1191
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Neurotrauma
Volume35
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - May 15 2018
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Animal studies
  • Biomarkers
  • Glial fibrillary acidic protein
  • Head trauma
  • Neurofilament light chain
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Valproic acid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology

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