Introduction In the Lower-Middle Income Country setting, we validate trauma severity scoring systems, namely Injury Severity Score (ISS), New Injury Severity Scale (NISS) score, the Kampala Trauma Score (KTS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS) score and the TRauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS) using Indian trauma patients. Patients and methods From 1 September 2013 to 28 February 2015, we conducted a prospective multi-centre observational cohort study of trauma patients in four Indian university hospitals, in three megacities, Kolkata, Mumbai and Delhi. All adult patients presenting to the casualty department with a history of injury and who were admitted to inpatient care were included. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality within 30-days of admission. The sensitivity and specificity of each score to predict inpatient mortality within 30 days was assessed by the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Model fit for the performance of individual scoring systems was accomplished by using the Akaike Information criterion (AIC). Results In a registry of 8791 adult trauma patients, we had a cohort of 7197 patients eligible for the study. 4091 (56.8%)patients had all five scores available and was the sample for a complete case analysis. Over a 30-day period, the scores (AUC) was TRISS (0.82), RTS (0.81), KTS (0.74), NISS (0.65) and ISS (0.62). RTS was the most parsimonious model with the lowest AIC score. Considering overall mortality, both physiologic scores (RTS, KTS) had better discrimination and goodness-of-fit than ISS or NISS. The ability of all Injury scores to predict early mortality (24 h) was better than late mortality (30 day). Conclusion On-admission physiological scores outperformed the more expensive anatomy-based ISS and NISS. The retrospective nature of ISS and TRISS score calculations and incomplete imaging in LMICs precludes its use in the casualty department of LMICs. They will remain useful for outcome comparison across trauma centres. Physiological scores like the RTS and KTS will be the practical score to use in casualty departments in the urban Indian setting, to predict early trauma mortality and improve triage.
- Injury scoring system
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Emergency Medicine
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine