Paralytic poliomyelitis developed in a man 51 days after his two-month-old daugther received her first dose of trivalent live oral poliovirus vaccine. The patient was receiving long-term glucocorticosteroid therapy (tapered to 12.5 mg per day for the eight months prior to his poliomyelitis) for Netherton's syndrome, a congenital syndrome characterized by bamboo-like hair, hyperkeratotic and hyperhidrotic skin, and multiple allergies. The patient was ventilator-dependent and quadriplegic throughout most of his hospital stay and died in the hospital 10 months after the onset of paralysis. "Vaccine-like" type 3 poliovirus was isolated from a stool specimen and his serum showed a significant rise in neutralizing antibody titer against type 3 virus. This case report represents the first documented case of vaccine-associated poliomyelitis in a household contact receiving glucocorticosteroids, although evidence of immunosuppression was not documented. Nevertheless, the case reinforces current recommendations not to administer oral poliovirus vaccine to persons known to be immune deficient or suppressed or to normal persons with close contacts known to be immune deficient or suppressed.
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