Immunity to malaria has long been thought to be stage-specific. In this study we show that immunization of BALB/c mice with live erythrocytes infected with nonlethal strains of Plasmodium yoelii under curative chloroquine cover conferred protection not only against challenge by blood stage parasites but also against sporozoite challenge. This cross-stage protection was dosedependent and long lasting. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells inhibited malaria liver but not blood stage. Their effect was mediated partially by IFN-γ, and was completely dependent of NO. Abs against both pre-erythrocytic and blood parasites were elicited and were essential for protection against blood stage and liver stage parasites. Our results suggest that Ags shared by liver and blood stage parasites can be the foundation for a malaria vaccine that would provide effective protection against both pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic asexual parasites found in the mammalian host.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy