A vaccine comprising human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) L2, E6 and E7 in a single tandem fusion protein (termed TA-CIN) has the potential advantages of both broad cross-protection against HPV transmission through induction of L2 antibodies able to cross neutralize different HPV types and of therapy by stimulating T cell responses targeting HPV16 early proteins. However, patients vaccinated with TA-CIN alone develop weak HPV neutralizing antibody and E6/E7-specific T cell responses. Here we test TA-CIN formulated along with the adjuvant GPI-0100, a semi-synthetic quillaja saponin analog that was developed to promote both humoral and cellular immune responses. Subcutaneous administration to mice of TA-CIN (20 μg) with 50 μg GPI-0100, three times at biweekly intervals, elicited high titer HPV16 neutralizing serum antibody, robust neutralizing titers for other HPV16-related types, including HPV31 and HPV58, and neutralized to a lesser extent other genital mucosatropic papillomaviruses like HPV18, HPV45, HPV6 and HPV11. Notably, vaccination with TA-CIN in GPI-0100 protected mice from cutaneous HPV16 challenge as effectively as HPV16 L1 VLP without adjuvant. Formulation of TA-CIN with GPI-0100 enhanced the production of E7-specific, interferon γ producing CD8+ T cell precursors by 20-fold. Vaccination with TA-CIN in GPI-0100 also completely prevented tumor growth after challenge with 5 × 104 HPV16-transformed TC-1 tumor cells, whereas vaccination with TA-CIN alone delayed tumor growth. Furthermore, three monthly vaccinations with 125 μg of TA-CIN and 1000 μg GPI-0100 were well tolerated by pigtail macaques and induced both HPV16 E6/E7-specific T cell responses and serum antibodies that neutralized all HPV types tested.
- Human papillomavirus
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Infectious Diseases