Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) requires both CD4 and a coreceptor to infect cells. Macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) HIV-1 strains utilize the chemokine receptor CCR5 in conjunction with CD4 to infect cells, while T-cell-tropic (T-tropic) strains generally utilize CXCR4 as a coreceptor. Some viruses can use both CCR5 and CXCR4 for virus entry (i.e., are dual-tropic), while other chemokine receptors can be used by a subset of virus strains. Due to the genetic diversity of HIV-1, HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and the potential for chemokine receptors other than CCR5 or CXCR4 to influence viral pathogenesis, we tested a panel of 28 HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV envelope (Env) proteins for the ability to utilize chemokine receptors, orphan receptors, and herpesvirus-encoded chemokine receptor homologs by membrane fusion and virus infection assays. While all Env proteins used either CCR5 or CXCR4 or both, several also used CCR3. Use of CCR3 was strongly dependent on its surface expression levels, with a larger number of viral Env proteins being able to utilize this coreceptor at the higher levels of surface expression. ChemR1, an orphan receptor recently shown to bind the CC chemokine I309 (and therefore renamed CCR8), was expressed in monocyte and lymphocyte cell populations and functioned as a coreceptor for diverse HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV Env proteins. Use of ChemR1/CCR8 by SIV strains was dependent in part on V3 loop sequences. The orphan receptor V28 supported Env-mediated cell-cell fusion by four T- or dual- tropic HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains. Three additional orphan receptors failed to function for any of the 28 Env proteins tested. Likewise, five of six seven- transmembrane-domain receptors encoded by herpesviruses did not support Env- mediated membrane fusion. However, the chemokine receptor US28, encoded by cytomegalovirus, did support inefficient infection by two HIV-1 strains. These findings indicate that additional chemokine receptors can function as HIV and SIV coreceptors and that surface expression levels can strongly influence coreceptor use.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Journal of Virology|
|State||Published - Dec 1997|
ASJC Scopus subject areas