Utility of molecular and serodiagnostic tools in cerebral toxoplasmosis with and without tuberculous meningitis in AIDS patients: A study from South India

Sreenivas Adurthi, Anita Mahadevan, Radhika Bantwal, Parthasarthy Satishchandra, Sujay Ramprasad, Hema Sridhar, S. K. Shankar, Avindra Nath, R. S. Jayshree

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Antemortem diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis, the second most common opportunistic infection (OI) in HIV-infected individuals in developing countries is a challenge. Materials and Methods: Toxoplasma gondii (T.gondii)-specific serology and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) were evaluated in sera and ventricular/lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 22 autopsy confirmed cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis with HIV and 17 controls. Frequency of concomitant T.gondii infection was investigated in 17 cases of HIV-associated tuberculous meningitis (TBM). Results: The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of T. gondii IgG on CSF (ventricular and lumbar) and sera was 100% in histology proven cerebral toxoplasmosis (concentrations: 258 50, 231 36, and 646 243 IU/mL, respectively); majority (94%) being high avidity type, suggesting reactivation/reinfection. The sensitivity of B1 nPCR was 100% on ventricular CSF, whereas it was only 77% on lumbar CSF. Based on histology, nPCR, and IgG serology, T. gondii co-infection with TBM was observed in 65% (11/17) of cases. Discussion and Conclusion: CSF IgG serology and nPCR are tests with high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis. TBM and cerebral toxoplasmosis can coexist and should be considered in the background of HIV infection in developing countries.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)263-270
Number of pages8
JournalAnnals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Volume13
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2010

Keywords

  • B1 gene
  • T. gondii IgG
  • Toxoplasma gondii
  • cerebral toxoplasmosis
  • human immunodeficiency virus
  • tuberculous meningitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology

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    Adurthi, S., Mahadevan, A., Bantwal, R., Satishchandra, P., Ramprasad, S., Sridhar, H., Shankar, S. K., Nath, A., & Jayshree, R. S. (2010). Utility of molecular and serodiagnostic tools in cerebral toxoplasmosis with and without tuberculous meningitis in AIDS patients: A study from South India. Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology, 13(4), 263-270. https://doi.org/10.4103/0972-2327.74197