Background: Children with craniofacial anomalies are at risk for social exclusion, bullying, and psychological symptoms, all of which are associated with poor developmental and health outcomes. The National Institutes of Health-developed Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System instruments may be useful tools for monitoring psychosocial functioning in clinical settings and for integrating patient and parent perspectives. Methods: The current study included 74 children (50 percent male) with craniofacial anomalies recruited through a multidisciplinary clinic. The authors obtained child self-report and parent-proxy ratings of depression, anxiety, and peer relationship quality using National Institutes of Health Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System instruments. The authors compared sample means to Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System instruments norms and analyzed the reliability of parents' and children's reporting of psychosocial variables. Results: All reliability statistics were satisfactory (α values ranging from 0.74 to 0.96) and sample standard deviations were similar to those obtained in a general population, suggesting that Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System instruments are reliable among children with craniofacial anomalies. In general, children and parents did not report unusual levels of psychological distress; however, they did report poorer peer relationship quality relative to normed data, a trend that was particularly pronounced among boys. Conclusions: National Institutes of Health Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System instruments are efficient and accurate tools for monitoring psychosocial adjustment among children with craniofacial anomalies. It may be especially important to monitor social functioning, particularly among boys.
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