Using Complier Average Causal Effect Estimation to Determine the Impacts of the Good Behavior Game Preventive Intervention on Teacher Implementers

Juliette K. Berg, Catherine P. Bradshaw, Booil Jo, Nicholas S Ialongo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Complier average causal effect (CACE) analysis is a causal inference approach that accounts for levels of teacher implementation compliance. In the current study, CACE was used to examine one-year impacts of PAX good behavior game (PAX GBG) and promoting alternative thinking strategies (PATHS) on teacher efficacy and burnout. Teachers in 27 elementary schools were randomized to PAX GBG, an integration of PAX GBG and PATHS, or a control condition. There were positive overall effects on teachers’ efficacy beliefs, but high implementing teachers also reported increases in burnout across the school year. The CACE approach may offer new information not captured using a traditional intent-to-treat approach.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalAdministration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research
Publication statusAccepted/In press - May 20 2016



  • Causal inference
  • Elementary school
  • Implementation
  • Teacher effects
  • Whole school intervention

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health Policy
  • Phychiatric Mental Health

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