The purpose of this study is to characterize manganese oxidation states and speciation in airborne particulate matter (PM) and describe how these potentially important determinants of PM toxicity vary by location. Ambient PM samples were collected from five counties across the US using a high volume sequential cyclone system that collects PM in dry bulk form segregated into "coarse" and "fine" size fractions. The fine fraction was analyzed for this study. Analyses included total Mn using ICP-MS and characterization of oxidation states and speciation using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). XAS spectra of all samples and ten standard compounds of Mn were obtained at the National Synchrotron Light Source. XAS data was analyzed using Linear Combination Fitting (LCF). Results of the LCF analysis describe differences in composition between samples. Mn(II) acetate and Mn(II) oxide are present in all samples, while Mn(II) carbonate and Mn(IV) oxide are absent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to characterize Mn composition of ambient PM and examine differences between urban sites in the US. Differences in oxidation state and composition indicate regional variations in sources and atmospheric chemistry that may help explain differences in health effects identified in epidemiological studies.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Chemistry