Background: Microvascular osseous free tissue transfer is the standard of care for reconstructing significant mandibulectomy defects; however, this procedure can carry a significant rate of morbidity. Objectives: To describe the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) as an option for segmental or near-complete rim mandibulectomy defects in a select group of patients, precluding the need for free tissue transfer. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of 6 patients who had undergone repair of a mandible defect using rhBMP-2 with beta-tricalcium phosphate matrix or a cadaveric bone graft at a single tertiary care institution. The defects resulted from resection of benign neoplasms or from previous trauma. Reconstruction success was defined as no hardware problems, healing without infection, no need for further surgical procedures, and imaging evidence of healing and union without resorption. The median follow-up period was 37.5 months (range, 12-51 months). Results: Five of 6 patients underwent successful restoration of the mandibulectomy defect. One patient with a compromised immune system developed a significant postoperative wound infection requiring further reconstructive surgery. Conclusion: The use of an rhBMP-2-based reconstructive approach is a feasible option for segmental or nearcomplete rim mandibulectomy defects in a select group of patients. Level of Evidence: 4.
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