Objective: To investigate safety, efficacy, and quality of life impact of hemi-gland cryotherapy for clinically-significant prostate cancer (CaP), when patient selection and follow-up includes MRI-guided biopsy. Methods: Twenty-nine men with unilateral CaP (all clinically significant with prostate volume <60 cc) were enrolled in a prospective observational trial of hemi-gland cryotherapy. Mean patient age was 68.7 years. Median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was 6.6 ng/mL. MRI-guided biopsy (3T-MRI, Artemis US fusion) was used for diagnosis and repeated at 6-month follow-up in all men. Treatment was under general anesthesia using the BTG/Galil system. Validated questionnaires were used to determine effects of treatment on urinary and sexual function and quality of life. Results: Cryotherapy was completed satisfactorily in all 29 cases in <60 minutes with no intraoperative complications. Significant decreases in PSA (median decrease 5.6 ng/mL) and PSA density (median decrease 0.14 ng/mL/cc) were observed (P <.01). At 6 months, 23 patients (79%) demonstrated no residual cancer on follow-up MRI-guided biopsy of the treated side. Three patients (10%) revealed micro-residual disease. Three patients (10%) had residual cancer and underwent further treatment. Ipsilateral MRI lesions were present before treatment in 26 patients and after treatment in only 2, reflecting the gross ablative effect; however, MRI showed disappearance of lesions in 4 patients with residual tumor on biopsy. The single complication was 1 case of transient urinary retention; 85% of men who were sexually active continued without change after treatment. Voiding function was unchanged. Conclusion: Hemi-gland cryoablation for clinically-significant CaP is well-tolerated, and when patients are selected and followed by MRI/US fusion biopsy, cancer control appears promising at 6 months.
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