Use of a Latent Class Analysis in the Diagnosis of Chronic Chagas Disease in the Washington Metropolitan Area

Chagas Working Group in Peru and the United States

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The diversity of individuals at risk for Trypanosoma cruzi infection in the United States poses challenges for diagnosis. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-cleared tests in the Washington Metropolitan area (WMA). METHODS: In total, 1514 individuals were evaluated (1078 from Mexico, Central and northern South America [TcI-predominant areas], and 436 from southern South America [TcII/V/VI-predominant areas]). Optical density (OD) values from the Hemagen EIA and Chagatest v.3 Wiener, and categorical results of the IgG-TESA-blot (Western blot with trypomastigote excretory-secretory antigen), and the Chagas detect plus (CDP), as well as information of area of origin were used to determine T. cruzi serostatus using latent class analysis. RESULTS: We detected 2 latent class (LC) of seropositives with low (LC1) and high (LC2) antibody levels. A significantly lower number of seropositives were detected by the Wiener, IgG-TESA-blot, and CDP in LC1 (60.6%, P < .001, 93.1%, P = .014, and 84.9%, P = .002, respectively) as compared to LC2 (100%, 100%, and 98.2%, respectively). LC1 was the main type of seropositives in TcI-predominant areas, representing 65.0% of all seropositives as opposed to 22.8% in TcII/V/VI-predominant areas. The highest sensitivity was observed for the Hemagen (100%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 96.2-100.0), but this test has a low specificity (90.4%, 95% CI: 88.7-91.9). The best balance between positive (90.9%, 95% CI: 83.5-95.1), and negative (99.9%, 95% CI: 99.4-99.9) predictive values was obtained with the Wiener. CONCLUSIONS: Deficiencies in current FDA-cleared assays were observed. Low antibody levels are the main type of seropositives in individuals from TcI-predominant areas, the most frequent immigrant group in the United States.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e303-e310
JournalClinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Volume72
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - May 4 2021

Keywords

  • chronic Chagas disease
  • latent class analysis
  • Latin American immigrants
  • serodiagnosis
  • test accuracy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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