Urologic Considerations and Complications in Kidney Transplant Recipients

Heather N. Di Carlo, Frank S. Darras

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Urologic considerations during the kidney transplantation process, starting with initial recipient evaluation and continuing through the post-transplant, long-term follow-up, are critical for minimizing urologic complications and improving graft survival. Appropriate, targeted, preoperative urologic evaluation of the recipient allows for an optimized urinary tract to accept the graft, whereas post-transplant urologic follow-up and monitoring decrease the risk of graft lost secondary to a urologic cause, particularly in patients with a urologic reason for their kidney failure and in those patients with concomitant urologic diagnoses. Urologic complications comprise the second most common adverse post-transplant event, occurring in 2.5% to 14% of patients and are associated with high morbidity, graft loss, and mortality. Early and late urologic complications, including hematuria, hematoma, lymphocele, urine leak, ureteral stricture, nephrolithiasis, and vesicoureteral reflux, and their causes and treatment options are explored. A multidisciplinary team approach to kidney transplantation, including transplant surgery, urology, and nephrology, optimizes outcomes and graft survival. Although the current role of the urologist in kidney transplantation varies greatly by institution, appropriate consultation, participation, and monitoring in select patients is essential.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)306-311
Number of pages6
JournalAdvances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1 2015


  • Complications
  • Kidney transplantation
  • Urinary tract
  • Urology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology


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