Urolithiasis in the exstrophy-epispadias complex

R. I. Silver, D. A C Gros, R. D. Jeffs, John Phillip Gearhart, T. DeJong, R. C. Rink, M. Cendron, H. M. Snyder, G. T. Klauber, H. G J Mesrobian, E. Minevich, J. Wacksman, P. K. Reddy, J. W. Brock, J. A. Stock, B. J. Broecker, G. A. McLorie, P. G. Duffy, R. I. Silver, D. A. DiamondM. C. Carr, A. E. Khoury, S. A. Kramer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Purpose: We sought to determine the incidence of urolithiasis in patients with the exstrophy-epispadias complex, associated risk factors and guidelines for the proper clinical management of this problem. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the chart and x-rays of 530 patients with the exstrophy-epispadias complex treated at our institution. Results: Stones formed in 77 of the 530 patients (15%), including 16% of those with classic exstrophy, 25% of those with cloacal exstrophy and 3% of those with epispadias. White and male individuals were most commonly affected. Most calculi formed in the bladder, whether native or augmented by enterocystoplasty. Standard techniques were successful for stone removal. Most calculi consisted of calcium apatite, calcium oxalate monohydrate or magnesium ammonium phosphate, usually in combination with at least I other element. The risk of stone formation was associated with augmentation cystoplasty (p

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1322-1328
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number3 SUPPL.
Publication statusPublished - 1997



  • Abnormalities
  • Bladder
  • Calculi
  • Epispadias
  • Exstrophy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

Cite this

Silver, R. I., Gros, D. A. C., Jeffs, R. D., Gearhart, J. P., DeJong, T., Rink, R. C., ... Kramer, S. A. (1997). Urolithiasis in the exstrophy-epispadias complex. Journal of Urology, 158(3 SUPPL.), 1322-1328. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5347(01)64467-7