Propoxyphene is an opioid analgesic that was surrounded by controversy concerning its safety and efficacy during its lifespan in the US market. Propoxyphene was withdrawn in November of 2010 from the US market and is still being detected one year post-withdrawal in urine specimens from the pain management population. In this study, the prevalence of propoxyphene was determined in a total of 417,914 urine specimens collected from 630 clinics involved in pain management located in 24 states during the period of January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2011. Propoxyphene and norpropoxyphene were measured in urine by a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry procedure with a lower limit of quantitation of 50 ng/mL. The positivity rate for propoxyphene prevalence declined sharply between November and December of 2010 and further declined at a gradual rate, ending in a prevalence of 0.27% (one out of every 370 specimens, n = 25,658) for the month of December 2011. The presented data provide evidence of the dramatic decline in the use of propoxyphene products since their removal from the medical market, and may be beneficial to US urine drug testing programs determining the need for continual monitoring of propoxyphene levels.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry
- Environmental Chemistry
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
- Chemical Health and Safety