Urine cadmium levels and albuminuria in a general population from Spain: A gene-environment interaction analysis

Maria Grau-Perez, Gernot Pichler, Inma Galan-Chilet, Laisa S. Briongos-Figuero, Pilar Rentero-Garrido, Raul Lopez-Izquierdo, Ana Navas Acien, Virginia Marie Weaver, Tamara García-Barrera, Jose L. Gomez-Ariza, Juan C. Martín-Escudero, F. Javier Chaves, Josep Redon, Maria Tellez-Plaza

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background The interaction of cadmium with genes involved in oxidative stress, cadmium metabolism and transport pathways on albuminuria can provide biological insight on the relationship between cadmium and albuminuria at low exposure levels. Objectives We tested the hypothesis that specific genotypes in candidate genes may confer increased susceptibility to cadmium exposure. Methods Cadmium exposure was estimated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) in urine from 1397 men and women aged 18–85 years participating in the Hortega Study, a representative sample of a general population from Spain. Urine albumin was measured by automated nephelometric immunochemistry. Abnormal albuminuria was defined as urine albumin greater than or equal to 30 mg/g. Results The weighted prevalence of abnormal albuminuria was 6.3%. The median level of urine cadmium was 0.39 (IQR, 0.23–0.65) μg/g creatinine. Multivariable-adjusted geometric mean ratios of albuminuria comparing the two highest to the lowest tertile of urine cadmium were 1.62 (95% CI, 1.43–1.84) and 2.94 (95% CI, 2.58–3.35), respectively. The corresponding odds ratios of abnormal albuminuria were 1.58 (0.83, 3.02) and 4.54 (2.58, 8.00). The association between urine cadmium and albuminuria was observed across all participant subgroups evaluated including participants without hypertension, diabetes or chronic kidney disease. We observed Bonferroni-corrected statistically significant interactions between urine cadmium levels and polymorphisms in gene SLC30A7 and RAC1. Conclusions Increasing urine cadmium concentrations were cross-sectionally associated with increased albuminuria in a representative sample of a general population from Spain. Genetic variation in oxidative stress and cadmium metabolism and transport genes may confer differential susceptibility to potential cadmium effects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)27-36
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironment International
Volume106
DOIs
StatePublished - 2017

Keywords

  • Albuminuria
  • Gene-environment interaction
  • Population-based survey
  • Urine cadmium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)

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    Grau-Perez, M., Pichler, G., Galan-Chilet, I., Briongos-Figuero, L. S., Rentero-Garrido, P., Lopez-Izquierdo, R., Navas Acien, A., Weaver, V. M., García-Barrera, T., Gomez-Ariza, J. L., Martín-Escudero, J. C., Chaves, F. J., Redon, J., & Tellez-Plaza, M. (2017). Urine cadmium levels and albuminuria in a general population from Spain: A gene-environment interaction analysis. Environment International, 106, 27-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2017.05.008