Urinary Stone Disease. Diagnosis, Medical Therapy, and Surgical Management

Wesley W. Ludwig, Brian Matlaga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Clinical suspicion of urolithiasis should be evaluated with low-dose computed tomography as the first-line imaging modality for nonpregnant, adult patients. A period of observation may be appropriate for ureteral stones less than 10 mm, and medical expulsive therapy may be beneficial for facilitating passage of distal ureteral stones. Regardless of stone type, patients should adhere to a low-sodium diet and attempt to achieve a urine volume of more than 2.5 L daily. Individuals with calcium stones should maintain a normal calcium diet, and if stones persist, citrate therapy or thiazide diuretics in the setting of hypercalciuria may be indicated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalMedical Clinics of North America
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2017


  • Dietary therapy
  • Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy
  • Medical therapy
  • Percutaneous nephrolithotomy
  • Ureteroscopy
  • Urolithiasis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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