Ureteroscopy for treatment of upper urinary tract stones in children: Technical considerations

Natasha Gupta, Joan Ko, Brian R. Matlaga, Ming Hsien Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The incidence of pediatric urolithiasis is increasing. While many smaller stones may pass spontaneously, surgical therapy is sometimes warranted. Surgical options include shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and open surgery. Ureteroscopy represents a minimally invasive approach, and it is increasingly being used to treat pediatric upper tract calculi. Ureteroscopy is performed under anesthesia and fluoroscopic guidance, with basket extraction or lithotripsy of the calculi. Technical considerations include active or passive ureteral dilatation, the use of ureteral access sheaths for larger stone burdens, and post-operative stent placement. The current pediatric literature suggests high success rates (equal to or surpassing shock wave lithotripsy) and low complication rates. However, concerns remain regarding feasibility in patients with variant anatomies and risk due to intra-operative radiation exposure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number407
JournalCurrent urology reports
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2014


  • Kidney calculi/surgery
  • Minimally invasive/methods
  • Surgical procedures
  • Treatment outcome
  • Ureteroscopes
  • Ureteroscopy/methods

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

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