Urban feral pigeons (Columba livia) as a source for air- and waterborne contamination with Enterocytozoon bieneusi spores

Thaddeus K. Graczyk, Deirdre Sunderland, Ana M. Rule, Alexandre J. Da Silva, Iaci N.S. Moura, Leena Tamang, Autumn S. Girouard, Kellogg J. Schwab, Patrick N. Breysse

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


This study demonstrated that a person with 30 min of occupational or nonoccupational exposure to urban feral pigeons, such as exposure through the cleaning of surfaces contaminated with pigeon excrement, could inhale approximately 3.5 × 103 Enterocytozoon bieneusi spores and that 1.3 × 103 spores could be inhaled by a nearby person.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4357-4358
Number of pages2
JournalApplied and environmental microbiology
Issue number13
StatePublished - Jul 1 2007


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Food Science
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • Ecology

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