Updating Norman's "Adequate Taxonomy". Intelligence and Personality Dimensions in Natural Language and in Questionnaires

Robert R. McCrae, Paul Costa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Research on the dimensions of personality represented in the English language has repeatedly led to the identification of five factors (Norman, 1963). An alternative classification of personality traits, based on analyses of standardized questionnaires, is provided by the NEO (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness) model (Costa & McCrae, 1980b). In this study we examined the correspondence between these two systems in order to evaluate their comprehensiveness as models of personality. A sample of 498 men and women, participants in a longitudinal study of aging, completed an instrument containing 80 adjective pairs, which included 40 pairs proposed by Goldberg to measure the five dimensions. Neuroticism and extraversion factors from these items showed substantial correlations with corresponding NEO Inventory scales; however, analyses that included psychometric measures of intelligence suggested that the fifth factor in the Norman structure should be reconceptualized as openness to experience. Convergent correlations above .50 with spouse ratings on the NEO Inventory that were made three years earlier confirmed these relations across time, instrument, and source of data. We discuss the relations among culture, conscientiousness, openness, and intelligence, and we conclude that mental ability is a separate factor, though related to openness to experience.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)710-721
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Personality and Social Psychology
Volume49
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1985
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

neuroticism
Intelligence
taxonomy
Personality
intelligence
personality
Language
questionnaire
language
Equipment and Supplies
Aptitude
Information Storage and Retrieval
personality traits
Spouses
Psychometrics
psychometrics
spouse
Longitudinal Studies
English language
longitudinal study

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science

Cite this

@article{2f01a07b896344b2865ba1031ccb1fe3,
title = "Updating Norman's {"}Adequate Taxonomy{"}. Intelligence and Personality Dimensions in Natural Language and in Questionnaires",
abstract = "Research on the dimensions of personality represented in the English language has repeatedly led to the identification of five factors (Norman, 1963). An alternative classification of personality traits, based on analyses of standardized questionnaires, is provided by the NEO (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness) model (Costa & McCrae, 1980b). In this study we examined the correspondence between these two systems in order to evaluate their comprehensiveness as models of personality. A sample of 498 men and women, participants in a longitudinal study of aging, completed an instrument containing 80 adjective pairs, which included 40 pairs proposed by Goldberg to measure the five dimensions. Neuroticism and extraversion factors from these items showed substantial correlations with corresponding NEO Inventory scales; however, analyses that included psychometric measures of intelligence suggested that the fifth factor in the Norman structure should be reconceptualized as openness to experience. Convergent correlations above .50 with spouse ratings on the NEO Inventory that were made three years earlier confirmed these relations across time, instrument, and source of data. We discuss the relations among culture, conscientiousness, openness, and intelligence, and we conclude that mental ability is a separate factor, though related to openness to experience.",
author = "McCrae, {Robert R.} and Paul Costa",
year = "1985",
month = "9",
doi = "10.1037/0022-3514.49.3.710",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "49",
pages = "710--721",
journal = "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology",
issn = "0022-3514",
publisher = "American Psychological Association Inc.",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Updating Norman's "Adequate Taxonomy". Intelligence and Personality Dimensions in Natural Language and in Questionnaires

AU - McCrae, Robert R.

AU - Costa, Paul

PY - 1985/9

Y1 - 1985/9

N2 - Research on the dimensions of personality represented in the English language has repeatedly led to the identification of five factors (Norman, 1963). An alternative classification of personality traits, based on analyses of standardized questionnaires, is provided by the NEO (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness) model (Costa & McCrae, 1980b). In this study we examined the correspondence between these two systems in order to evaluate their comprehensiveness as models of personality. A sample of 498 men and women, participants in a longitudinal study of aging, completed an instrument containing 80 adjective pairs, which included 40 pairs proposed by Goldberg to measure the five dimensions. Neuroticism and extraversion factors from these items showed substantial correlations with corresponding NEO Inventory scales; however, analyses that included psychometric measures of intelligence suggested that the fifth factor in the Norman structure should be reconceptualized as openness to experience. Convergent correlations above .50 with spouse ratings on the NEO Inventory that were made three years earlier confirmed these relations across time, instrument, and source of data. We discuss the relations among culture, conscientiousness, openness, and intelligence, and we conclude that mental ability is a separate factor, though related to openness to experience.

AB - Research on the dimensions of personality represented in the English language has repeatedly led to the identification of five factors (Norman, 1963). An alternative classification of personality traits, based on analyses of standardized questionnaires, is provided by the NEO (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness) model (Costa & McCrae, 1980b). In this study we examined the correspondence between these two systems in order to evaluate their comprehensiveness as models of personality. A sample of 498 men and women, participants in a longitudinal study of aging, completed an instrument containing 80 adjective pairs, which included 40 pairs proposed by Goldberg to measure the five dimensions. Neuroticism and extraversion factors from these items showed substantial correlations with corresponding NEO Inventory scales; however, analyses that included psychometric measures of intelligence suggested that the fifth factor in the Norman structure should be reconceptualized as openness to experience. Convergent correlations above .50 with spouse ratings on the NEO Inventory that were made three years earlier confirmed these relations across time, instrument, and source of data. We discuss the relations among culture, conscientiousness, openness, and intelligence, and we conclude that mental ability is a separate factor, though related to openness to experience.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0022120677&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0022120677&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1037/0022-3514.49.3.710

DO - 10.1037/0022-3514.49.3.710

M3 - Article

C2 - 4045699

AN - SCOPUS:0022120677

VL - 49

SP - 710

EP - 721

JO - Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

JF - Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

SN - 0022-3514

IS - 3

ER -