Purpose of review The occurrence of pediatric venous thromboembolism (VTE) and the associated sequelae are increasing. The purpose of this PubMed-based review was to summarize the evidence published between 1 August 2014 and 31 March 2015 regarding pediatric VTE epidemiology, risk factors and risk scores, as well as the results from clinical prevention and treatment studies in children. We also sought to provide an update regarding ongoing clinical trials in pediatric VTE prevention and treatment, based on a recent (31 March 2015) search of the clinicaltrials.gov and EudraCT clinical trial registration databases. Recent findings Recent research has defined and/or substantiated risk factors and risk models for pediatric VTE. Studies of pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics and safety/efficacy of fondaparinux and dalteparin have also been reported, in addition to findings of the pilot/feasibility phase of a randomized controlled trial on duration of anticoagulation. With regard to oral direct anticoagulants, to date 14 pediatric clinical trials have been registered on clinicaltrials.gov and EudraCT, some of which represent US/North American instances of trials previously launched in Europe. Summary The present findings on published studies and registered trials in pediatric VTE mark an ongoing period of remarkable activity and advancement in the field of pediatric VTE.
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