Updated perspectives on neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome

Paul Christo, Kai McGreevy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Pain represents a foremost feature of neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (NTOS). Similar to other persistent pain conditions, the physical discomfort associated with NTOS can cause severe and often debilitating symptoms. In fact, those suffering from the syndrome report a quality of life impacted as significantly as those with chronic heart failure. This evidence-based literature review focuses on the classification, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic measures, and surgical treatment of NTOS, with a focus on nonoperative therapies such as physical modalities, pharmacological therapies, and more contemporary minimally invasive intramuscular treatments with botulinum toxin.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)14-21
Number of pages8
JournalCurrent Pain and Headache Reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2011



  • Anterior scalene muscle
  • Botulinum toxin
  • Brachial plexus
  • Computed tomography
  • Electromyography
  • Fluoroscopy
  • Minimally invasive treatments
  • Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome
  • Pain relief
  • Rib resection and scalenectomy
  • Scalene muscles
  • Thoracic outlet syndrome
  • Ultrasound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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