Update on the Treatment of Spontaneous Intraparenchymal Hemorrhage: Medical and Interventional Management

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Abstract

Purpose of review: Spontaneous intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH) is a prominent challenge faced globally by neurosurgeons, neurologists, and intensivists. Over the past few decades, basic and clinical research efforts have been undertaken with the goal of delineating biologically and evidence-based practices aimed at decreasing mortality and optimizing the likelihood of meaningful functional outcome for patients afflicted with this devastating condition. Here, the authors review the medical and surgical approaches available for the treatment of spontaneous intraparenchymal hemorrhage, identifying areas of recent progress and ongoing research to delineate the scope and scale of IPH as it is currently understood and treated. Recent findings: The approaches to IPH have broadly focused on arresting expansion of hemorrhage using a number of approaches. Recent trials have addressed the effectiveness of rapid blood pressure lowering in hypertensive patients with IPH, with rapid lowering demonstrated to be safe and at least partially effective in preventing hematoma expansion. Hemostatic therapy with platelet transfusion in patients on anti-platelet medications has been recently demonstrated to have no benefit and may be harmful. Hemostasis with administration of clotting complexes has not been shown to be effective in reducing hematoma expansion or improving outcomes although correcting these abnormalities as soon as possible remains good practice until further data are available. Stereotactically guided drainage of IPH with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) has been shown to be safe and to improve outcomes. Research on new stereotactic surgical methods has begun to show promise. Summary: Patients with IPH should have rapid and accurate diagnosis with neuroimaging with computed tomography (CT) and computed tomography angiography (CTA). Early interventions should include control of hypertension to a systolic BP in the range of 140 mmHg for small hemorrhages without intracranial hypertension with beta blockers or calcium channel blockers, correction of any coagulopathy if present, and assessment of the need for surgical intervention. IPH and FUNC (Functional Outcome in Patients with Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage) scores should be assessed. Patients should be dispositioned to a dedicated neurologic ICU if available. Patients should be monitored for seizures and intracranial pressure issues. Select patients, particularly those with intraventricular extension, may benefit from evacuation of hematoma with a ventriculostomy or stereotactically guided catheter. Once stabilized, patients should be reassessed with CT imaging and receive ongoing management of blood pressure, cerebral edema, ICP issues, and seizures as they arise. The goal of care for most patients is to regain capacity to receive multidisciplinary rehabilitation to optimize functional outcome.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1
JournalCurrent Treatment Options in Neurology
Volume20
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018

Keywords

  • Hematoma evacuation
  • ICH
  • IPH
  • IVH
  • Intracerebral hemorrhage
  • Intraparenchymal hemorrhage
  • Intraventricular hemorrhage
  • Surgical management of intracranial hemorrhage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology

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