Update on the seroepidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus in the United States household population: NHANES III, 1988-1994

Geraldine M. McQuillan, Meena Khare, John M. Karon, Charles A. Schable, David Vlahov

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    Abstract

    To update the estimate of seroprevalence of HIV from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), data from the second phase of the survey were combined with previously publish data to produce a more precise estimate. The testing was performed anonymously on 11,203 individuals 18-59 years of age examined from 1988 to 1994. Fifty-nine individuals were HIV positive, for an overall prevalence of 0.32%. The number of individuals living in households with HIV infection based on this estimate was 461,000, with a 95% confidence interval of 290,000-733,000. Analysis on nonresponse demonstrated that white and black men 40-59 years of age were least likely to participate in the survey. A sensitivity analysis demonstrated that this nonresponse may have biased the NHANES III estimate downward by 190,000 persons. Data from the second phase of the survey were used to analyze the association between drug use and HIV infection. Black women who used cocaine were 12 times more likely to be HIV positive compared with all tested black women (6.5% vs. 0.55%). This survey provides an estimate of HIV prevalence for individuals who reside in households but excludes some persons who are at higher risk for HIV infection, including prisoners and the homeless not residing in shelters.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)355-360
    Number of pages6
    JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology
    Volume14
    Issue number4
    StatePublished - Apr 1 1997

    Keywords

    • Human immunodeficiency virus infection
    • National survey
    • Prevalence
    • Seroepidemiology
    • Urine drug testing

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Immunology and Allergy
    • Immunology
    • Virology

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