In connective tissue diseases, panniculitis can be the sole manifestation or can occur along with the underlying disease process. The best described forms of connective tissue panniculitis are lupus erythematosus panniculitis and lupus profundus, panniculitis associated with dermatomyositis, and morphea- and scleroderma-associated panniculitis. These processes cause significant morbidity, such as deep atrophic scars, cosmetic disfigurement, and psychiatric sequelae. Because the inflammation is located in the subcutaneous adipose layer, topical therapies may not penetrate enough to be effective, and systemic agents are required. Despite the large number of reported cases and therapies, recommendations for treatment are based largely on case series and expert opinion due to a lack of controlled therapeutic trials. All treatments are off-label in the United States. The lack of validated clinical outcome measures makes systematic and controlled studies difficult. Nonetheless, further investigation into the most effective therapies for these conditions is needed.
- Lupus erythematosus panniculitis
- Lupus profundus
- Morphea profunda
ASJC Scopus subject areas