Update on intravitreal anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapies for ocular disorders

Isabel Pascual-Camps, Pablo Hernández-Martínez, Laura Monje-Fernández, Rosa Dolz-Marco, Roberto Gallego-Pinazo, Lihteh Wu, J. Fernando Arévalo, Manuel Díaz-Llopis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) is an important pro-inflammatory cytokine associated with a variety of ocular diseases. The currently available TNF-? inhibitors are etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab, golimumab, and certolizumab. Experimental and clinical studies on the intravitreal use of these agents have been reported with etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab: etanercept has shown limited efficacy in scarce reports; infliximab has been associated with local safety concerns but appears to benefit certain cases; adalimumab has shown no efficacy in cases of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) or diabetic macular edema (DME), but the combination with bevacizumab may be effective in refractory cases of macular diseases. Further preclinical and clinical studies are warranted in order to be able to obtain a more robust conclusion on the use of intravitreal TNF-? inhibitors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number26
Pages (from-to)1-5
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 1 2014


  • Adalimumab
  • Etanercept
  • Infliximab
  • Intravitreal injection
  • Ocular disorders
  • Tumor necrosis factor alpha

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Infectious Diseases


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