Up-regulation of MKK4, MKK6 and MKK7 during prostate cancer progression: An important role for SAPK signalling in prostatic neoplasia

Tamara Lotan, M. Lyon, D. Huo, J. B. Taxy, C. Brendler, B. A. Foster, W. Stadler, C. W. Rinker-Schaeffer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Identification of the signalling cascades that are differentially activated during prostatic tumourigenesis is a crucial step in the search for future molecular targets in this disease. The stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) signalling cascade culminates in the phosphorylation of the JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Recently, the upstream activators of these proteins, the MAPK kinases (MKKs), have been implicated as inhibitors of tumour progression in a variety of clinical and experimental tumour models. This study evaluates MKK4, MKK6 and MKK7 expression during prostate cancer progression in humans and in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of a mouse prostate (TRAMP) model of prostate tumourigenesis. Benign prostate, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) lesions and tumour tissues were collected from 37 TRAMP mice. Additionally, six tissue microarrays were constructed with tumours from a matched group of 102 men who underwent radical prostatectomy. Tissues from 20 patients with extensive high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) were also analysed. For all samples, immunohistochemical staining for MKK4, MKK6 and MKK7 was scored in normal and neoplastic glands. Staining intensities of MKK4, MKK6 and MKK7 were significantly increased in HGPIN and prostate cancer compared to surrounding normal glands in both the TRAMP and human samples (p <0.0001 for all markers). Increased levels of MKK4 or MKK7 correlated with higher pathological stage at prostatectomy (p = 0.01 and p = 0.04). Using multivariate analysis, there was no association between protein levels and time to biochemical recurrence in the human samples. The up-regulation of MKK4, MKK6 and MKK7 during prostate cancer progression in both TRAMP and human tissues highlights an important role for the SAPK signalling cascade in prostatic neoplasia. The finding that higher MKK4 and MKK7 expression is associated with higher-stage prostatic tumours underscores the dynamic regulation of these proteins during prostatic tumourigenesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)386-394
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Pathology
Volume212
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2007
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Heat-Shock Proteins
Protein Kinases
Prostate
Prostatic Neoplasms
Up-Regulation
Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia
Adenocarcinoma
Neoplasms
Prostatectomy
Staining and Labeling
Proteins
JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Research Design
Theoretical Models
Multivariate Analysis
Phosphorylation
Recurrence

Keywords

  • Immunohistochemistry
  • MKK4
  • MKK6
  • MKK7
  • PIN
  • Prostate cancer
  • TRAMP

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine

Cite this

Up-regulation of MKK4, MKK6 and MKK7 during prostate cancer progression : An important role for SAPK signalling in prostatic neoplasia. / Lotan, Tamara; Lyon, M.; Huo, D.; Taxy, J. B.; Brendler, C.; Foster, B. A.; Stadler, W.; Rinker-Schaeffer, C. W.

In: Journal of Pathology, Vol. 212, No. 4, 08.2007, p. 386-394.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lotan, T, Lyon, M, Huo, D, Taxy, JB, Brendler, C, Foster, BA, Stadler, W & Rinker-Schaeffer, CW 2007, 'Up-regulation of MKK4, MKK6 and MKK7 during prostate cancer progression: An important role for SAPK signalling in prostatic neoplasia', Journal of Pathology, vol. 212, no. 4, pp. 386-394. https://doi.org/10.1002/path.2194
Lotan, Tamara ; Lyon, M. ; Huo, D. ; Taxy, J. B. ; Brendler, C. ; Foster, B. A. ; Stadler, W. ; Rinker-Schaeffer, C. W. / Up-regulation of MKK4, MKK6 and MKK7 during prostate cancer progression : An important role for SAPK signalling in prostatic neoplasia. In: Journal of Pathology. 2007 ; Vol. 212, No. 4. pp. 386-394.
@article{b2820d8d74e0494997750804ccf7311f,
title = "Up-regulation of MKK4, MKK6 and MKK7 during prostate cancer progression: An important role for SAPK signalling in prostatic neoplasia",
abstract = "Identification of the signalling cascades that are differentially activated during prostatic tumourigenesis is a crucial step in the search for future molecular targets in this disease. The stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) signalling cascade culminates in the phosphorylation of the JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Recently, the upstream activators of these proteins, the MAPK kinases (MKKs), have been implicated as inhibitors of tumour progression in a variety of clinical and experimental tumour models. This study evaluates MKK4, MKK6 and MKK7 expression during prostate cancer progression in humans and in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of a mouse prostate (TRAMP) model of prostate tumourigenesis. Benign prostate, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) lesions and tumour tissues were collected from 37 TRAMP mice. Additionally, six tissue microarrays were constructed with tumours from a matched group of 102 men who underwent radical prostatectomy. Tissues from 20 patients with extensive high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) were also analysed. For all samples, immunohistochemical staining for MKK4, MKK6 and MKK7 was scored in normal and neoplastic glands. Staining intensities of MKK4, MKK6 and MKK7 were significantly increased in HGPIN and prostate cancer compared to surrounding normal glands in both the TRAMP and human samples (p <0.0001 for all markers). Increased levels of MKK4 or MKK7 correlated with higher pathological stage at prostatectomy (p = 0.01 and p = 0.04). Using multivariate analysis, there was no association between protein levels and time to biochemical recurrence in the human samples. The up-regulation of MKK4, MKK6 and MKK7 during prostate cancer progression in both TRAMP and human tissues highlights an important role for the SAPK signalling cascade in prostatic neoplasia. The finding that higher MKK4 and MKK7 expression is associated with higher-stage prostatic tumours underscores the dynamic regulation of these proteins during prostatic tumourigenesis.",
keywords = "Immunohistochemistry, MKK4, MKK6, MKK7, PIN, Prostate cancer, TRAMP",
author = "Tamara Lotan and M. Lyon and D. Huo and Taxy, {J. B.} and C. Brendler and Foster, {B. A.} and W. Stadler and Rinker-Schaeffer, {C. W.}",
year = "2007",
month = "8",
doi = "10.1002/path.2194",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "212",
pages = "386--394",
journal = "Journal of Pathology",
issn = "0022-3417",
publisher = "John Wiley and Sons Ltd",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Up-regulation of MKK4, MKK6 and MKK7 during prostate cancer progression

T2 - An important role for SAPK signalling in prostatic neoplasia

AU - Lotan, Tamara

AU - Lyon, M.

AU - Huo, D.

AU - Taxy, J. B.

AU - Brendler, C.

AU - Foster, B. A.

AU - Stadler, W.

AU - Rinker-Schaeffer, C. W.

PY - 2007/8

Y1 - 2007/8

N2 - Identification of the signalling cascades that are differentially activated during prostatic tumourigenesis is a crucial step in the search for future molecular targets in this disease. The stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) signalling cascade culminates in the phosphorylation of the JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Recently, the upstream activators of these proteins, the MAPK kinases (MKKs), have been implicated as inhibitors of tumour progression in a variety of clinical and experimental tumour models. This study evaluates MKK4, MKK6 and MKK7 expression during prostate cancer progression in humans and in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of a mouse prostate (TRAMP) model of prostate tumourigenesis. Benign prostate, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) lesions and tumour tissues were collected from 37 TRAMP mice. Additionally, six tissue microarrays were constructed with tumours from a matched group of 102 men who underwent radical prostatectomy. Tissues from 20 patients with extensive high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) were also analysed. For all samples, immunohistochemical staining for MKK4, MKK6 and MKK7 was scored in normal and neoplastic glands. Staining intensities of MKK4, MKK6 and MKK7 were significantly increased in HGPIN and prostate cancer compared to surrounding normal glands in both the TRAMP and human samples (p <0.0001 for all markers). Increased levels of MKK4 or MKK7 correlated with higher pathological stage at prostatectomy (p = 0.01 and p = 0.04). Using multivariate analysis, there was no association between protein levels and time to biochemical recurrence in the human samples. The up-regulation of MKK4, MKK6 and MKK7 during prostate cancer progression in both TRAMP and human tissues highlights an important role for the SAPK signalling cascade in prostatic neoplasia. The finding that higher MKK4 and MKK7 expression is associated with higher-stage prostatic tumours underscores the dynamic regulation of these proteins during prostatic tumourigenesis.

AB - Identification of the signalling cascades that are differentially activated during prostatic tumourigenesis is a crucial step in the search for future molecular targets in this disease. The stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) signalling cascade culminates in the phosphorylation of the JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Recently, the upstream activators of these proteins, the MAPK kinases (MKKs), have been implicated as inhibitors of tumour progression in a variety of clinical and experimental tumour models. This study evaluates MKK4, MKK6 and MKK7 expression during prostate cancer progression in humans and in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of a mouse prostate (TRAMP) model of prostate tumourigenesis. Benign prostate, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) lesions and tumour tissues were collected from 37 TRAMP mice. Additionally, six tissue microarrays were constructed with tumours from a matched group of 102 men who underwent radical prostatectomy. Tissues from 20 patients with extensive high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) were also analysed. For all samples, immunohistochemical staining for MKK4, MKK6 and MKK7 was scored in normal and neoplastic glands. Staining intensities of MKK4, MKK6 and MKK7 were significantly increased in HGPIN and prostate cancer compared to surrounding normal glands in both the TRAMP and human samples (p <0.0001 for all markers). Increased levels of MKK4 or MKK7 correlated with higher pathological stage at prostatectomy (p = 0.01 and p = 0.04). Using multivariate analysis, there was no association between protein levels and time to biochemical recurrence in the human samples. The up-regulation of MKK4, MKK6 and MKK7 during prostate cancer progression in both TRAMP and human tissues highlights an important role for the SAPK signalling cascade in prostatic neoplasia. The finding that higher MKK4 and MKK7 expression is associated with higher-stage prostatic tumours underscores the dynamic regulation of these proteins during prostatic tumourigenesis.

KW - Immunohistochemistry

KW - MKK4

KW - MKK6

KW - MKK7

KW - PIN

KW - Prostate cancer

KW - TRAMP

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=34547102745&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=34547102745&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/path.2194

DO - 10.1002/path.2194

M3 - Article

C2 - 17577251

AN - SCOPUS:34547102745

VL - 212

SP - 386

EP - 394

JO - Journal of Pathology

JF - Journal of Pathology

SN - 0022-3417

IS - 4

ER -