Up-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α is an early event in prostate carcinogenesis

Hua Zhong, Gregg L. Semenza, Jonathan W. Simons, Angelo M. De Marzo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) activates the transcription of genes encoding glucose transporters, glycolytic enzymes, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). HIF-1α is a major subunit of HIF-1 heterodimer. In this study, an immunohistochemical analysis of HIF-1α was focused on clinical specimens containing high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia lesions since high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia is considered the precursor of a majority of invasive prostate adenocarcinoma and presents the increased activity of angiogenesis. HIF-1α was up-regulated in 11 of 14 high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia lesions identified in a total 10 prostate biopsies relative to the respective normal epithelium, stromal cells, and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Moreover, up-regulation of HIF-1α in adjacent prostate cancer lesions was more enhanced than in high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia. The results suggest that up-regulation of HIF-1α is an early event in prostate carcinogenesis, and that HIF-1α may become a potential target for prostate cancer prevention and a surrogate biomarker for monitoring pre-malignant lesions of the prostate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)88-93
Number of pages6
JournalCancer detection and prevention
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2004


  • BPH
  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia
  • HG-PIN
  • HIF-1
  • High-grade PIN
  • Hypoxia-inducible factor 1
  • IGF
  • Insulin-like growth factor
  • PCA
  • PIN
  • Prostate
  • Prostatic adenocarcinoma
  • Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia
  • VEGF
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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